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  • Anthocyanidins are common plant pigments. They are the sugar-free counterparts of anthocyanins based on the flavylium ion or 2-phenylchromenylium, which is a type of oxonium ion (chromenylium is referred also to as benzopyrylium).[1] They form a large group of polymethine dye.

  • In particular anthocyanidins are salt derivatives of the 2-phenylchromenylium cation, also known as flavylium cation.

  • The counterion of the flavylium cation is mostly chloride. With this positive charge, the anthocyanidins differ from other flavonoids.

  • Anthocyanidins have flavylium cations, a lewis acid will interact with buckminsterfullerence which is a resonance and canonical structure as lewis basis.

  • Among polyphenols, the anthocyanidins and their glycosylated derivatives, anthocyanins, abundantly present in pigmented fruits and vegetables.

  • Anthocyanins are pigments primarily responsible for the attractive colors in fruits and vegetables and form substantial constituents of human diet.It has been estimated that humans consuming diets high in vegetables and fruits can intake 80-215mg of anthocyanins daily.

  • The isolated anthocyanins were acid-hydrolyzed to release the corresponding anthocyanidins.

  • Major sources of anthocyanidins in the american diet are bilberries, blueberries, cherries, strawberries and purple grapes. They have a wide range of biological activities including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activities.

  • Delphidin, a major biologically active anthocyanidin found in berries, inhibits the vascular endothelial growth factor induced phosphorylation of VEGF receptor-2 and blocks angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo.

  • The active constituents of the bilberry fruit have been identified as anthocyanidin glycosides, commonly called anthocyanosides. These are bioflavonoids responsible for the red to blue colors in many berries and flowers.

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