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biosensor is an analytical device for the detection of an analyte that
combines a biological component with a physicochemical detector.
is also a chemical sensing device in which a biologically derived
recognition entity is coupled to a transducer, to allow the quantitative
development of some complex biochemical parameter.
consists of 3 parts 1. Sensitive biological element 2. Transducer and 3.
principle of detection of biosensor is based on the specific interaction
between the analyte of interest and the recognition element.
widespread example of a commercial biosensor is the blood glucose
biosensor, which uses an enzyme to break blood glucose down.
requirements for a biosensor approach to be valuable in terms of
research and commercial applications are the identification of a target
molecule, availability of a suitable biological recognition element and
potential for disposable portable detection systems to be preferred to
sensitive laboratory-based techniques in some situations.
Biosensors are usually classified into various groups either by type of
transducer employed (electrochemical, optical and piezoelectric) or by
the kind of bio-recognition element utilized( antibody, enzymes and
Biosensors use a biochemical recognition mechanism, such as an analyte
concentration, in direct contact with a transducer.
and the "Sensor" elements can be coupled together in one of the four
possible ways 1.Membrane Entrapment 2. Physical Adsorption 3. Matrix
Entrapment 4. Covalent Bonding.
unique characteristics of biosensors will allow these devices to
complement current field screening and monitoring methods such as
immunoassay test kits and chemical sensors.
clinical analysis, general health care monitoring, veterinary and
agricultural applications, industrial processing and monitoring, and
environmental pollution control.
advantages are likely to include low cost, small size, quick and easy
use as well as a sensitivity and selectivity greater than the current
several applications of biosensors in food analysis. In food industry
optic coated with antibodies are commonly used to detect pathogens and
food toxins. The light system in these biosensors has been fluorescence,
since this type of optical measurement can greatly amplify the signal.
biosensor applications can be classified into three broad categories:
sequencing, mutation detection, and matching detection.
Biosensors are an important alternative in the food industry to ensure
the quality and safety of products and process controls with effective,
fast and economical methods.
of enzymatic biosensor technology in food processing, quality control
and on-line processes is promising compared to conventional analytical
Biosensors combine the exquisite selectivity of the biological molecule
with the processing power of modern microelectronics and optoelectronics
to offer powerful new analytical tools with applications in medical
diagnostics, environmental monitoring and food processing.
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