Biosensors

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  • A biosensor is an analytical device for the detection of an analyte that combines a biological component with a physicochemical detector.

  • Biosensor is also a chemical sensing device in which a biologically derived recognition entity is coupled to a transducer, to allow the quantitative development of some complex biochemical parameter.

  • It consists of 3 parts 1. Sensitive biological element 2. Transducer and 3. Detector element.

  • The principle of detection of biosensor is based on the specific interaction between the analyte of interest and the recognition element.

  • The most widespread example of a commercial biosensor is the blood glucose biosensor, which uses an enzyme to break blood glucose down.

  • The main requirements for a biosensor approach to be valuable in terms of research and commercial applications are the identification of a target molecule, availability of a suitable biological recognition element and potential for disposable portable detection systems to be preferred to sensitive laboratory-based techniques in some situations.

  • Biosensors are usually classified into various groups either by type of transducer employed (electrochemical, optical and piezoelectric) or by the kind of bio-recognition element utilized( antibody, enzymes and nucleic acids).

  • Biosensors use a biochemical recognition mechanism, such as an analyte concentration, in direct contact with a transducer.

  • The "bio" and the "Sensor" elements can be coupled together in one of the four possible ways 1.Membrane Entrapment 2. Physical Adsorption 3. Matrix Entrapment 4. Covalent Bonding.

  • The unique characteristics of biosensors will allow these devices to complement current field screening and monitoring methods such as immunoassay test kits and chemical sensors.

  • Uses in clinical analysis, general health care monitoring, veterinary and agricultural applications, industrial processing and monitoring, and environmental pollution control.

  • The advantages are likely to include low cost, small size, quick and easy use as well as a sensitivity and selectivity greater than the current instruments.

  • There are several applications of biosensors in food analysis. In food industry optic coated with antibodies are commonly used to detect pathogens and food toxins. The light system in these biosensors has been fluorescence, since this type of optical measurement can greatly amplify the signal.

  • DNA biosensor applications can be classified into three broad categories: sequencing, mutation detection, and matching detection.

  • Biosensors are an important alternative in the food industry to ensure the quality and safety of products and process controls with effective, fast and economical methods.

  • The use of enzymatic biosensor technology in food processing, quality control and on-line processes is promising compared to conventional analytical techniques.

  • Biosensors combine the exquisite selectivity of the biological molecule with the processing power of modern microelectronics and optoelectronics to offer powerful new analytical tools with applications in medical diagnostics, environmental monitoring and food processing.

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