Chemicals & Minerals from Sea

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  • The sea offers a variety of minerals, many of which are considered to be alternative sources of metals.

  • Minerals occur on the seabed in two forms: 1)Polymetallic nodules which are small balls of iron, manganese and Sea bed massive sulphides lie at extinct hydrothermal vents and contain copper, gold, zinc and other metals. They are extracted using remotely operated vehicles to scrap the deposits from the seabed and pump them to a barge.

  • Project have four key result areas: 1) development of regional legislative and regulatory framework for offshore minerals exploration & mining 2) formulation if national policy, legislation and regulations 3) building national capacities 4) effective management and monitoring of offshore exploration and mining operations.

  • Nautilus is the first company to commercially explore for seafloor massive sulphide deposits.

  • Deep sea minerals rich in Copper, Cobalt, Nickel, Manganese, Zinc, Lead, Barium, Silver and Gold.

  • A major technological challenge to mining minerals from such depths.

  • Concept of recovering minerals from seawater has been obtained as a way of counteracting the gradual depletion of conventional mineral ores.

  • Sea water contains approximately 65,000 tonnes of bromine. This bromine is removed from the sea water by displacement of the bromide ions using chlorine.

  • Sea water contains at least 72 different chemical elements.

  • Mineral Extraction sector includes the extraction of marine aggregates from the seabed and the extraction of salt.

  • Resources extracted from the sea that were formerly in the sea range from common construction materials to high-tech metals to water.

  • Chemical analyses have demonstrated that sea water contains about 3.5 percent dissolved solids, with more than sixty chemical elements identified.

  • Limitations on extraction of the dissolved elements as well as the extraction of mineral resources are nearly always economic, but also be affected by geographic location and hampered by technological constraints.

  • Magnesium in sea water at a concentration of about 1,000 parts per million, is the only metal directly extracted from sea water.

  • Currently 60 percent of the magnesium metal and many of the magnesium salts produced in the United States are extracted from sea water by electrolytically.

  • Marine minerals in deeper waters are currently being described as future potential resources.

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