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  • Ciprofloxacin, a fluorinated quinolone, belonging to a class of fluorinated antibiotics which also include enoxacin, fleroxacin, temafloxacin, grepafloxacin, norfloxacin, sparfloxacin, tosufloxacin, lomefloxacin, ofloxacin, etc.
  • Ciprofloxacin has been in use since 1987 for a variety of other indications and is the most-widely used fluoroquinolone in humans and animals worldwide.
  • Ciprofloxacin has been implicated in several cases of acute renal failure and is the most established fluoroquinolone to cause such renal dysfunction.

Mode of action

  • Ciprofloxacin is a synthetic bactericidal antibiotic that inhibits bacterial nuclear DNA synthesis, so that bacteria rapidly die.
  • The target is the enzyme DNA gyrase (topoisomerase II), which is responsible for the supercoiling and uncoiling of the DNA.
  • Supercoiling of the DNA allows the long DNA molecule to fit into the cell.
  • Uncoiling of the structure is the initiative step for replication, transcription, and repair of the DNA. Thus, prolonged inhibition will lead to the death of the cell.


  • Today's world of terrorist incidents have occurred, the U.S. case of inhalation anthrax, resulting in another wave of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride, a sales peak, the recent United Nations procurement of 800 tons of ciprofloxacin bidding has attracted the concern of national pharmaceutical companies.
  • China more than 90% of ciprofloxacin (API) and intermediates manufacturing companies are concentrated in the Zhejiang region, according to surveys, over Zhejiang Jiashan, Zhejiang Medicine Co., Ltd. is the largest of ciprofloxacin (API) .


  • Studies with histopathologic or radiological end points.
  • We reviewed 10 studies that, radiographically or pathologically by autopsy, evaluated pediatric and adolescent patients aged 5 days–24 years who were treated with ciprofloxacin or ofloxacin for 7 days–10 months.
  • These studies found no evidence of the cartilaginous pathology described in the original fluoroquinolone animal studies .
  • Schaad et al. performed autopsies of the left knee on 2 children aged 7 and 13 years with cystic fibrosis treated with 9–10 months of ciprofloxacin. He found no histopathologic cartilage lesions.

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