- Ciprofloxacin, a
fluorinated quinolone, belonging to a class of fluorinated
antibiotics which also include enoxacin, fleroxacin, temafloxacin,
grepafloxacin, norfloxacin, sparfloxacin, tosufloxacin, lomefloxacin,
- Ciprofloxacin has been in
use since 1987 for a variety of other indications and is the
most-widely used fluoroquinolone in humans and animals worldwide.
- Ciprofloxacin has been
implicated in several cases of acute renal failure and is the most
established fluoroquinolone to cause such renal dysfunction.
Mode of action
- Ciprofloxacin is a
synthetic bactericidal antibiotic that inhibits bacterial nuclear
DNA synthesis, so that bacteria rapidly die.
- The target is the enzyme
DNA gyrase (topoisomerase II), which is responsible for the
supercoiling and uncoiling of the DNA.
- Supercoiling of the DNA
allows the long DNA molecule to fit into the cell.
- Uncoiling of the
structure is the initiative step for replication, transcription, and
repair of the DNA. Thus, prolonged inhibition will lead to the death
of the cell.
- Today's world of
terrorist incidents have occurred, the U.S. case of inhalation
anthrax, resulting in another wave of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride, a
sales peak, the recent United Nations procurement of 800 tons of
ciprofloxacin bidding has attracted the concern of national
- China more than 90% of
ciprofloxacin (API) and intermediates manufacturing companies are
concentrated in the Zhejiang region, according to surveys, over
Zhejiang Jiashan, Zhejiang Medicine Co., Ltd. is the largest of
ciprofloxacin (API) .
- Studies with
histopathologic or radiological end points.
- We reviewed 10 studies
that, radiographically or pathologically by autopsy, evaluated
pediatric and adolescent patients aged 5 days–24 years who were
treated with ciprofloxacin or ofloxacin for 7 days–10 months.
- These studies found no
evidence of the cartilaginous pathology described in the original
fluoroquinolone animal studies .
- Schaad et al. performed
autopsies of the left knee on 2 children aged 7 and 13 years with
cystic fibrosis treated with 9–10 months of ciprofloxacin. He found
no histopathologic cartilage lesions.
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