Cow Placenta

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Information @ a Glance

  • The placenta is the membrane that connects the fetus with the dam. The button like structures of the placenta, connect with the caruncles of the uterus.

  • After a normal calving, the placenta will be expelled within 30minutes to 8 hours. If the placenta has not been released after 12 hours, the cow will have a condition known as retained placenta.

  • The placenta is an active endocrine organ tat provides a site for nutrient exchange, facilitates waste removal from the fetus, and provides an immunological barrier to both the maternal immune system and potential pathogens.

  • The placenta is retained in up to 20% of the cows that abort and infertility may be a sequela. Some serovars can cause sudden decreased milk production.

  • Manual removal of the placenta is not advised. The uterine walls are thin and fragile, and manipulation of the uterus may cause harm. Trimming out the placenta may decrease the dirt caught by the placenta, however the pulling force of the placenta's weight will be lost.

  • The placenta serves as the functional unit of exchange between the maternal and fetal systems.If the placenta is dragging on the ground it should be cut off at the level of the hocks to prevent it from being stepped on by the cow and torn off.

  • The basic goal in any treatment of retained placentas is to return the cow's reproductive tract to a normal state as quick as possible.

  • There are generally two methods of managing retained placenta when no systemic involvements are present- manual removal and natural separation. Manual removal has long been a common practice but should not be used because of possible injury to the delicate lining of the uterus.

  • The use of Reprocine which is the latest treatment available in the UK. It contains the synthetic hormone carbetocin and is given to cows by injection. It stimulates uterine motility, contracting down the uterus and thereby helping to expel the retained placenta.

  • Based on recent research on retained placenta, the most common recommendation is to allow the placenta to separate naturally with or without the use of medication.

  • Retained placenta is defined as the failure to pass all or part of the placenta from the uterus within 24hr of calving. Retained placenta or metritis requiring systematic therapy occurs in 11-18% of calvings.

  • Method for isolating and purifying immuno-modulating polypeptide from cow placenta, which is characterized by using steps of anion exchange chromatography, gel exclusion chromatography and reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography to isolate and purify immuno-polypeptide from cow placenta, identifying its activity of stimulating lymphocyte proliferation in vitro by MTT method.

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