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  • A Chemical Element in the Lanthanide Series with Symbol Er and atomic number 68.

  • A Silvery White solid metal and it is always naturally found in chemical combination with other elements on earth.

  • When Erbium metal is readily oxidize in air and burns to form Erbium Oxide.

  • Erbium was discovered in 1843 by a Swedish chemist named Carl Gustav Mosander.

  • A soft, malleable, lustrous, silvery metal. Its salts are rose coloured and it has a sharp adsorption spectra in visible, ultraviolet & infrared light.

  • The wavelength of erbium-emitted light at 1530nm falls very close to the ideal wavelength (1550nm) for minimal signal loss in optical fibers.

  • Erbium metal reacts with all halogens (F2, Cl2, Br2, I2) and is quite electropositive which reacts slowly with cold water and when reacts with hot water to form erbium hydroxide.

  • One of the more abundant rare-earth elements. The main mining areas are China and US.

  • Used to amplify fibre optics allowing the light signal to travel long distances without the need of externally boosting the signal.

  • A doping agent in optical fibres, where it enables the fibre to be optically pumped to act as an amplifier for signals passing through it (i.e. erbium doped fibre amplifiers or EDFAs).

  • Erbium occurs in the Earth's crust at an average concentration of 3 parts per million and is used in nuclear technology in neutron-absorbing control rods.

  • As a Photographic Filter and because of its resilience it is useful as a metallurgical additive.

  • Due to its pink colour, erbium is sometimes used as a glass and porcelain enamel glaze colorant.

  • When Occur in natural, Erbium is composed of 6 stable isotopes such as 162Er,164Er,166Er,167Er,168Er and 170Er.

  • Erbium iodide is used as a heat and light stabilizer for nylon fabrics and Erbium selenide is used in infrared detection and imaging.

  • Application in metallurgy includes that when is added to vanadium alloys improve their workability and lower their hardness and is alloyed with nickel to form an alloy is used in cryocoolers.

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