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  • Gibberellic acid (also called Gibberellin A3, GA, and (GA3) is a hormone found in plants. Its chemical formula is C19H22O6. When purified, it is a white-to-pale-yellow solid.
  • GA was first identified in Japan in 1935, as a metabolic byproduct of the plant pathogen Gibberella fujikuroi (thus the name), which afflicts rice plants.
  • Gibberellins have been identified in many species (and are believed to be present in all plant species) of plants at various amounts in all parts of plants. There are over 125 gibberellins that vary in structure and activity; however GA3 is the most thoroughly studied.


  • The gibberellic acid formed in the fermentation medium may be isolated by filtration of the medium and extraction of the filtrate with an organic solvent or by absorption with activated charcoal.
  • GA3 has been obtained by chemical synthesis, extraction from plants and by microbial fermentation. Stereo specific chemical synthesis involves multiple steps and the use of expensive reagents.
  • GA3 production in fungal culture includes liquid surface fermentation, submerged fermentation, and solid state fermentation


  • It is a high-value industrially important biochemical selling at $27-36/g on the international market.
  • Currently, GA3 is largely produced by submerged fermentation of the fungus Gibberella fujikuroi on an industrial scale.
  • The filamentous fungus Gibberella fujikuroi is the main producer of gibberellins. These hormones are widely used to optimise growth in several products, particularly seedless grapes.
  • Gibberellic Acids are applied to growing crops (field crops, small fruits, vines and tree fruits), ornamental and shade tress, and ornamental plants, shrubs and vines.

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