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  • A process is mainly employed to reduce or saturate organic compounds which involves the chemical reaction between molecular hydrogen and another element, usually in the presence of a catalyst.

  • Most hydrogenations use gaseous hydrogen (H2), but some involve the alternative sources of hydrogen, not H2: these processes are called transfer hydrogenations.

  • The reverse reaction that is the removal of hydrogen from a molecule is called dehydrogenation.

  • Hydrogenation has three components, the unsaturated substrate, the hydrogen or hydrogen source and invariably a catalyst.

  • Process of converting liquid oils to semisolid plastic fats suitable for margarine, shortening, heavy-duty frying fats.

  • Physical characteristics will change under the hydrogenation process where viscosity and melting point will increase as the degree of saturation increases.

  • Unsaturated fatty acids may be converted to saturated fatty acids by the simple hydrogenation reaction. A simple hydrogenation reaction is:H2C=CH2 + H2 ---> CH3CH3 alkene plus hydrogen produces an alkane.

  • For hydrogenation to take place, catalyst such as gaseous hydrogen, liquid oil and nickel are placed in a specially designed reaction vessel under controlled temperature and pressure.

  • Great importance to the petrochemical and fine chemical industries.

  • In fine chemical and pharmaceutical industries, this type of reaction is often an important step in producing the end product.

  • In food industry, hydrogenation is completely to saturate the unsaturate fatty acids in vegetable oils to convert them into semi-solid fats.

  • One of the critical step in upgrading of biocrude to usable, renewable biofuel.

  • Purpose of this process to increase the resistance of the oil to changing the melting behavior of the oil.

  • Hydrogenation also tends to be a highly exothermic reaction, resulting in demanding temperature control requirements.

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