Pharmaceutical Film coating
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- The coating of solid
pharmaceutical dosage forms began in the ninth century B.C., with
- At that time the
primary solid dosage form was the pill, a hand-shaped spherical mass
containing drug, sugar, and other diluents. A variety of materials
were used to coat pills, such as talc, gelatin, and sugar.
- Gold and silver were
- The candy-making
industry was the first to develop and enhance the art of coating. It
is most likely that the pharmaceutical industry adopted sugar
coating technology for its own use.
- The first sugar-coated
pills produced in the United States came out of Philadelphia in
- Coatings resistant to
enteric or gastric fluids were developed in the 1880s. In 1953 the
first compression-coated tablet was introduced, and in 1954 the
first film-coated tablet was marketed.
- There are many reasons
for coating tablets; some aesthetic, some functional.
- One important reason
is to enhance drug stability; that is, to protect the drug from
oxygen, moisture, and light, the three key causes of drug
degradation. Coating can also be used to separate reactive
components in a tablet formula. Another important reason for tablet
coating is identification.
- Tablet coatings may
take on a variety of colors. A coated tablet may also be imprinted
with a symbol or word. In the case of the film-coated tablet, the
tablet core may be embossed with a symbol or word that remains
visible after the coating process.
- The coating is used to
uniquely identify a branded product.
- Tablet coating is done
for aesthetic reasons as well. Often the appearance of the tablet
core is mottled or otherwise unattractive. Coating masks this. Many
times, too, the drug itself has a bitter taste.
- Coating masks this as
well. Tablet coating can also be used to control the duration and
site of drug release. Overall, tablet coating, through an
additional step in the manufacturing process, is often vital.
- Tablet coating is perhaps one of the
oldest pharmaceutical processes still in existence.
- A film coating is a thin polymer-based
coat applied to a solid dosage form such as a tablet, granule or
- The thickness of such a coating is
usually between 20 and 100 μm. Under close examination the film
- To maximize the
efficiency of the coating application process, high-solids loadings
are desirable. By reducing the coating time using high-solids
formulations, productivity is increased and overall manufacturing
costs are reduced.
- Aquarius Preferred
film coating systems are state-of-the-art immediate-release
coatings, which have been scientifically formulated with careful
- Clear advantages in
film coating process productivity are seen with high-solids
- The coating system to
be increased significantly with viscosities in the range of 100–300
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