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Phosphonates

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  • Phosphonates are also known as  phosphonic acids.
  • They are organic compounds containing like C-PO(OH)2 or C-PO(OR)2 groups  R denoted as alkyl, aryl.
  • Phosphonic acids are well known and  effective chelating agents.
  • Phosphonates are effective  water-soluble.
  • Phosphonic acids are only sparingly soluble in water.
  • Phosphonates are not volatile and are poorly soluble in organic solvents.
  • Naturally occurred  phosphonate is  2-aminoethylphosphonic acid.
  • An important industrial use of phosphonates is in cooling waters, desalination systems, and in oil fields to inhibit scale formation.
  • Phosphonates are also regularly used in reverse osmosis systems as anti-scalants.
  • Phosphonates in cooling water systems also serve to control corrosion of iron and steel.
  • They serve as "peroxide bleach stabilizers" in pulp and paper manufacturing and in textile industry  by chelating metals that could inactivate the peroxide.
  • Consumption of phosphonates was 56,000 tons worldwide - 40,000 tons in the US, 15,000 tons in Europe and less than 800 tons in Japan.
  • Phosphonates are also used to treat "sudden oak death", which is caused by the fungus like eukaryote Phytophthora ramorum.
  • Toxicity of phosphonates to aquatic organisms is low.
  •  In  phosphonate degradation nature bacteria plays a major role.
  • Aminophosphonates can also be used as sole nitrogen source by some bacteria.
  • Phosphonates are present mainly as Ca and Mg-complexes in natural waters and therefore do not affect metal speciation or transport.
  • Phosphonates can also be synthesized via transesterification reaction catalyzed by organic catalysts.
  • α-aminophosphonate is prepared by condensation of benzaldehyde, aniline, and trimethyl phosphite catalyzed by Copper triflate in a one-pot synthesis.
  • The utilities of alpha-aminophosphonates as peptide mimics, haptens of catalytic antibodies, enzyme inhibitors, inhibitors of cancers, tumours, viruses, antibiotics and pharmacologic agents are well documented.

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