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  • The process of devulcanization involves treating rubber in granular form with heat and/or softening agents in order to restore its elastic qualities, in order to enable the rubber to be reused.
  • With the rapidly growing rubber industry, rubber wastage is also increasing. However, The rubber industry has found the innovative way of making reclaim rubber and using them in a variety of applications. Reclaimed rubber is manufactured from waste rubber products like scrap tires and tubes.
  • Reclaimed rubber is mostly used in making of tyres, rubber sheets, tiles, mats and tubeless tyres.
  • The rubber recycling process begins with the collection and shredding of discarded tires. This reduces the rubber to a granular material, and all the steel and reinforcing fibers are removed. After a secondary grinding, the resulting rubber powder is ready for product remanufacture.
  • In the rubber recycling process, devulcanization begins with the delinking of the sulfur molecules from the rubber molecules, thereby facilitating the formation of new cross-linkages.
  • The purpose of the devulcanization process is to restore the virgin rubber to its original state. Devulcanized reclaimed rubber can be used in nearly all applications that require virgin rubber; a stark contrast to the physical recycling methods of vulcanized rubber that has limited recyclable applications.
  • Regeneration process consists of production steps as follows: sorting and grinding of rubber, removal of textile fibers and metals, de-vulcanizing and mechanical treatement of the vulcanized rubber .
  • The high-energy ultrasound could be used to devulcanize rubber as it can focus energy into localized sites for selective bond rupture.
  • The ultrasonic devulcanization reactor consisted of three main sections, namely a power source, ultrasonic transducer with sample holding unit, and a monitoring system to measure the amplitude, frequency and power.
  • Approximately, one tire is discarded per person per year. Tires are also often recycled for use on basketball courts and new shoe products. However, material recovered from waste tires, known as "crumb," is generally only a cheap "filler" material and is rarely used in high volumes.
  • The global rubber demand is in excess of 22 million metric tons per year and consists of thousands of manufacturers that can substitute devulcanized rubber in their products and achieve substantial savings.
  • Over 27 million used tires are generated each year in California of which 21 million are waste tires. While tires constitute only about one-half of one percent by weight of the total municipal solid waste stream, their size, shape, and physical and chemical properties present an unusually challenging disposal problem .
  • Crumb rubber is made from the discarded tires and is a term used to describe recycled rubber in coffee grain size particles. Used tires can be typically ground into two different classes of tire crumb, 10 mesh and smaller and 20 mesh and larger
  • Another potential application utilizes recycled tires in erosion control. In California, several discarded tire erosion control applications have been designed and implemented. Tires have been used in applications such as reinforcing unstable highway shoulders or protecting channel slopes.
  • Annually, 16,000,000 automobile, light truck, and smaller tires plus 900,000 medium truck and larger tires were removed from vehicles in Florida in 2007.
  • Recent developments in devulcanization enable dealing with substantial volumes, taking 40 mesh whole tire crumb and converting it into value-added compounds without degrading the polymer and without generating any pollution. This new generation in devulcanization technologies operates with very high productivity while maintaining a low energy footprint.

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