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- The process of
devulcanization involves treating rubber in granular form with
heat and/or softening agents in order to restore its elastic
qualities, in order to enable the rubber to be reused.
- With the rapidly growing
rubber industry, rubber wastage is also increasing. However, The
rubber industry has found the innovative way of making reclaim
rubber and using them in a variety of applications. Reclaimed
rubber is manufactured from waste rubber products like scrap
tires and tubes.
- Reclaimed rubber is mostly
used in making of tyres, rubber sheets, tiles, mats and tubeless
- The rubber recycling process
begins with the collection and shredding of discarded tires.
This reduces the rubber to a granular material, and all the
steel and reinforcing fibers are removed. After a secondary
grinding, the resulting rubber powder is ready for product
- In the rubber recycling
process, devulcanization begins with the delinking of the sulfur
molecules from the rubber molecules, thereby facilitating the
formation of new cross-linkages.
- The purpose of the
devulcanization process is to restore the virgin rubber to its
original state. Devulcanized reclaimed rubber can be used in
nearly all applications that require virgin rubber; a stark
contrast to the physical recycling methods of vulcanized rubber
that has limited recyclable applications.
- Regeneration process consists
of production steps as follows: sorting and grinding of rubber,
removal of textile fibers and metals, de-vulcanizing and
mechanical treatement of the vulcanized rubber .
- The high-energy ultrasound
could be used to devulcanize rubber as it can focus energy into
localized sites for selective bond rupture.
- The ultrasonic
devulcanization reactor consisted of three main sections, namely
a power source, ultrasonic transducer with sample holding unit,
and a monitoring system to measure the amplitude, frequency and
- Approximately, one tire is
discarded per person per year. Tires are also often recycled for
use on basketball courts and new shoe products. However,
material recovered from waste tires, known as "crumb," is
generally only a cheap "filler" material and is rarely used in
- The global rubber demand is
in excess of 22 million metric tons per year and consists of
thousands of manufacturers that can substitute devulcanized
rubber in their products and achieve substantial savings.
- Over 27 million used tires
are generated each year in California of which 21 million are
waste tires. While tires constitute only about one-half of one
percent by weight of the total municipal solid waste stream,
their size, shape, and physical and chemical properties present
an unusually challenging disposal problem .
- Crumb rubber is made from the
discarded tires and is a term used to describe recycled rubber
in coffee grain size particles. Used tires can be typically
ground into two different classes of tire crumb, 10 mesh and
smaller and 20 mesh and larger
- Another potential application
utilizes recycled tires in erosion control. In California,
several discarded tire erosion control applications have been
designed and implemented. Tires have been used in applications
such as reinforcing unstable highway shoulders or protecting
- Annually, 16,000,000
automobile, light truck, and smaller tires plus 900,000 medium
truck and larger tires were removed from vehicles in Florida in
- Recent developments in
devulcanization enable dealing with substantial volumes, taking
40 mesh whole tire crumb and converting it into value-added
compounds without degrading the polymer and without generating
any pollution. This new generation in devulcanization
technologies operates with very high productivity while
maintaining a low energy footprint.
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