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  • Tall oil, also called "liquid rosin" or tallol, is a viscous yellow-black odorous liquid obtained as a by-product of the Kraft process of wood pulp manufacture when pulping mainly coniferous trees.
  • The tall oil rosin finds use as a component of adhesives, rubbers, and inks, and as an emulsifier. The pitch is used as a binder in cement, an adhesive, and an emulsifier for asphalt.
  • Tall oil has its origins in the Kraft pulping process. During this process, cooking chemicals at high temperatures and elevated pH digest the wood, creating pulp. A byproduct of the pulping process is black liquor. This liquor contains the cooking chemicals, residual pulp, and resin or pitch from the trees. Tall oil is the refined form of the pitch and resin.
  • Tall Oil is produced on two sites: crude tall oil is extracted by kraft wood pulping mills, and then this crude is processed off-site.
  • Tall oil is a residual product of cellulose production, and it provides the paper mills with an important additional income whenever the price level of the main products drop.
  • The demand is for the tall oil rosin and fatty acids which are used to produce adhesives, coatings, and ink resins. The products find use in lubricants, soaps, linoleum, flotation and waterproofing agents, paints, varnishes, and drying oils.
  • It is used as a frothing agent in the flotation process for reclaiming low grade copper-, lead- and zinc-bearing ores, and as a solvent or wetting agent in a variety of textile and synthetic fibre manufacturing processes.
  • Wood extractives are known to be the principal source of decay resistance in wood , i.e. they act as natural wood preservatives. The use of tall oil as a wood protective agent is interesting because its precursors are the extractives found especially in coniferous trees.
  • The tendency of oil to exude from the wood arises because the lack of oxygen inside the wood prevents polymerization of the tall oil, causing the unpolymerized oil to exude from the wood with time, to form a pitch-like surface.
  • Tall oil is a product of the paper and pulping industry. Crude tall oil is the major byproduct of the kraft or sulfate processing of pinewood.
  • Most rosin is used in a chemically modified form rather than in the raw state in which it is obtained. It consists primarily of a mixture of abietic- and pimaric-type acids with smaller amounts of neutral compounds. This intrinsic acidity, coupled with other chemical properties, enables it to be converted to a Large number of downstream derivatives which are used in a wide range of applications.
  • The demand is for the tall oil rosin and fatty acids which are used to produce adhesives, coatings, and ink resins. The products find use in lubricants, soaps, linoleum, flotation and waterproofing agents, paints, varnishes, and drying oils.
  • Since tall oil and its production are derived from the paper and pulping industry, the amount of tall oil produced is related in part to the pulp industry and in part to the U.S. economy.
  • Demand for tall oil fatty acids (TOFA) and TOFA derivatives, as well as tall oil rosin-based resins are said to be picking up, mostly because of improved economic activity.
  • Recent increases in vegetable oil-based fatty acids prices have also made TOFA more competitive in the fatty acids market. One producer also notes new demand for TOFA derivatives in some nontraditional markets.
  • Demand growth for CTO is projected to be 0.5 percent per year for the forecast period, in anticipation of improving TOFA demand owing to firmer pricing in the competing vegetable oil sector. 

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