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Information @ a Glance

  • Straw is an agricultural by-product, the dry stalks of cereal plants, after the grain and chaff have been removed.

  • Biomass is the mass of living organisms and recently dead matter like wood, leaves, stalks, straw and other organic matter.

  • Wheat-straw waste is a natural byproduct of the industrial fractionation of wheat straw.

  • Wheat straw is renewable, widely distributed, available locally, moldable, anisotropic, hydroscopic, recyclable, versatile, non-abrasive, porous, viscoelastic, easily available in many forms, biodegradable, combustible, compostible, and reactive.

  • Wheat straw is one of the most abundant and cheap agricultural wastes, and it is estimated that about 250 million tons are produced annually in China. Wheat straw is predominantly disposed of by direct burning in open field due to lack of effective utilization, which also causes serious environmental pollution.

  • Many possible composite products can be made using wheat fibers including structural (using thermosetting resins) and nonstructural (using either a thermosetting or thermoplastic resin) materials, geotextiles and molded products (using fiber mats prepared by physical entanglement, nonwoven needling, or thermoplastic fiber-melt matrix technologies), sorbents and filters (for removing pollutants from contaminated air, water, and/or soil), packaging, and in products in combination of other resources.

  • Compressed agricultural fiber (CAF) is manufactured from wheat or rice straw, the byproduct of wheat and rice grain, and has been successfully used for many years in the general construction trade.

  • Bioethanol is made from biomass and it is renewable. Wheat straw is a good raw material for ethanol production, since wheat straw has a rather high content of cellulose.

  • Straw has a higher ash content and lower lignin content when compared with wood and has not been used for board manufacture with the use of conventional formaldehyde resins (UF, MUF, PF, etc.), while other types of adhesives like polymeric isocyanates.

  • Agricultural residues (straws) are primarily composed of cellulose, lignin and hemicelluloses. But straws also contain significant amounts of pectins, proteins and, most importantly, inorganic compounds (ash), most of which is silica.

  • Wheat straw pulp will likely be used in blends with wood pulps in proportions consistent with paper and board cost and performance specifications.

  • The bioconversion of the agro waste material into fuel has received considerable interest during recent years.

  • Currently a most important application of cellulases and hemicellulases in the pulp and paper industry is the biobleaching of pulp, the production of dissolving pulp, the treatment of wastewater and the deinking of recycled waste paper.

  • Wheat straw is produced about 33-48 mons/acre and crop to residue ratio is 1:1. 40-50% wheat straw is being used to feed animals by the farmers and landlords and 44-56% is surplus and is being sold into the market at the rate of Rs. 90-100/Mon.

  • The processing of straw differs from that of wood in the initial stage of the composite material process . The harvested and baled wheat straw is size-reduced (chopped), hammer-milled, screened, and pre-wetted before defibration (the fiber-refining process)

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