phosphide is a dark gray or dry, yellow, crystalline solid. Aluminum
phosphide reacts with moisture to give phosphine, a flammable and
phosphine will spontaneously ignite upon contact with air. If there
is an excess of water, the phosphine fire will not normally ignite
any surrounding combustible material.
phosphide is a reducing agent. Contact with mineral acids causes
explosive evolution of toxic phosphine .
produces highly toxic fumes of phosphorus oxides. Can react
vigorously upon contact with oxidizing agents.
- Current trade or other names include
Fastphos, Fumitoxin, Gastoxin, Max- Kill, Phosfume, Phostoxin and
Weevilcide. Al-phos, Celphide, Celphine, Celphos, Detia-Gas-Ex, and
Quick Tox may have been used in previous formulations
- Aluminium phosphide
is manufactured by reacting Aluminium and Phosphorus in a closed
chamber. Aluminium phosphide is formed, instantaneously liberating
heat of reaction. The Aluminium phosphide thus obtained, is reduced
to required size, blended with inert ingredients and converted into
various tablets and pouches.
- During the course
of reaction, P2O5 fumes (as H3PO4 mist) generated, which are pass
through scrubber, followed with mist eliminator so as to control the
emission of pollutants. Also, dilute phosphoric acid is generated as
a by-product by the industrial units.
- Phostoxin and aluminum phosphide are not
absorbed dermally; main routes of exposure are through ingestion and
inhalation . They are highly toxic via both these routes.
- Aluminum phosphide ingested orally reacts
with water and stomach acids to produce phosphine gas, which may
account in a large part for observed toxicity . Phosphine generated
in the gastrointestinal tract is readily absorbed into the
bloodstream, and it is readily absorbed through the lung epithelium.
- Phosphine may cause denaturing of
oxyhemeglobin (the carrier for systemic distribution of oxygen) as
well as enzymes important for respiration and metabolism, and may
also have effects on cellular membranes . Inhaled aluminum phosphide
dust undergoes the same reaction in the moist air sacs of the lung,
although at a lower rate, resulting in similar local and systemic
- Symptoms of mild to moderate acute
aluminum phosphide toxicity include nausea, abdominal pain,
tightness in chest, excitement, restlessness, agitation and chills .
Symptoms of more severe toxicity include, diarrhea, cyanosis,
difficulty breathing, pulmonary edema, respiratory failure,
tachycardia (rapid pulse) and hypotension (low blood pressure),
dizziness and/or death .
- Convulsions have been reported in lab
animals exposed to high concentrations of phosphine . Severe
exposure may also result in proteinuria or glucosuria (low molecular
weight proteins or glucose in the urine) indicating kidney damage.
Fire fighting measures
media : Dry chemical. Sand.
- Not usable
extinguishing media : Do not use extinguishing media containing
procedures : Exercise caution when fighting any chemical fire.
Avoid (reject) fire-fighting sand or dry chemical to enter
thermal : Burning may produce: very toxic vapours/gases.
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