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  • Antibiotic is a substance produced by certain bacteria or fungi. With their growth, they kills other cells or interferes. In nature, these substances help some microbes survive by limiting the multiplication of other microbes that share the same environment.
  • Antibiotics that attack pathogenic (means disease-causing) microbes, without severely harming normal body cells are useful as drugs.
  • Antibiotics are especially useful for treating infections caused by bacteria.
  • During the 1940's, Antibiotics came into widespread use and at that time, they were often called "wonder drugs" as because they cured many of the bacterial diseases that were once fatal.
  • The number of deaths caused by tuberculosis, pneumonia, meningitis,   and scarlet fever declined drastically after antibiotics became available. Today, physicians are prescribing the antibiotics to treat many diseases caused by bacteria.
  • Antibiotics are not effective against colds, influenza, or any other viral diseases. In addition, the effectiveness of antibiotics is limited because both pathogenic microbes and cancer cells can become resistant to them.
  • Antibiotics fight microbes and cancer cells by interfering with normal cell functions. In most cases, this interference occurs in one of the following three ways: prevention of cell wall formation, or disruption of the cell membrane (covering), and disruption of chemical processes.
  • In severe infections, presumptive therapy with a broad-spectrum antibiotic such as a 3rd generation cephalosporin may be the appropriate one.
  • Antibiotics are usually taken by mouth (orally). However, they can also be applied directly to the affected part of the body or  administered by injection.
  • The compounds that make the fermentation broth are the primary raw materials required for antibiotic production. This broth is an aqueous solution made up of all of the ingredients necessary for the proliferation of the microorganisms. Typically, it contains a carbon source like soy meal or molasses, both of which are made up of lactose and glucose sugars. These materials are needed as a food source for the organisms. Nitrogen is another necessary compound in the metabolic cycles of the organisms.
  • For this reason, an ammonia salt is typically used. And additionally, trace elements needed for the proper growth of the antibiotic-producing organisms are included. These are components such as phosphorus, zinc, iron, sulfur, magnesium,  and copper introduced through water soluble salts.
  • To prevent foaming during fermentation, anti-foaming agents such as lard oil, octadecanol, and silicones are used. Although most antibiotics occur in nature, they are not normally available in the quantities necessary for large-scale production.
  • According to Global Research and data services, World Antibiotics Market is expected to Reach US$40.3 Billion by 2015 and 34.1 Billion Euros by 2016. The market expansion is expected to be 4.6% in the coming years.

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