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Information @ a Glance

General Information

  • Carbon capture and storage (CCS), alternatively referred to as carbon capture and sequestration, is a means of mitigating the contribution of fossil fuel emissions to global warming.
  • Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is the process of removing or reducing the CO2 content of streams normally released to the atmosphere, and transporting the captured CO2 to a location for permanent storage.
  • There are three basic types of CO2 capture: post-combustion, pre-combustion, and oxy-combustion.
  • CO2 can be captured from a wide range of large sources, such as process streams, heater and boiler exhausts, and vents from a range of industries, such as power generation, cement production, refining, chemicals, steel and natural gas treating.

Process

  • CO2 capture processes from power production fall into three general categories: flue gas separation, oxy-fuel combustion in power plants and pre-combustion separation.
  • The process is based on capturing carbon dioxide (CO2) from large point sources, such as fossil fuel power plants, and storing it in such a way that it does not enter the atmosphere.
  • Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) is an important concept to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, in particular from power plants. After CO2- capture the CO2 needs to be compressed to achieve the right transport and storage conditions.
  • Once captured, the CO2 is compressed, dried and transported to a suitable storage location such as saline aquifers, depleted oil fields and depleted gas fields.

Uses

  • The carbon capture process has been used for several decades in the petroleum, chemical, and power industries for a variety of reasons relevant to those industrial processes.
  • Most applications of CCS in industry for example for boilers, turbines, iron & steel, furnaces and cement kilns - require a capture step to concentrate relatively dilute streams of CO2 to a level that will enable economic transportation and storage.
  • Carbon dioxide capture can be used for the following applications: CO2 sequestration, Enhanced oil recovery (EOR), Merchant CO2 sales, Chemical feedstock production.
  • Capturing CO2 might be applied to large point sources, such as large fossil fuel or biomass energy facilities, industries with major CO2 emissions, natural gas processing, synthetic fuel plants and fossil fuel-based hydrogen production plants.

Report

  • Worldwide, there are today several operational largescale projects, along with numerous smaller facilities, demonstrating specific elements of the carbon capture process.
  • In past year, there were approximately 5,800 km of CO2 pipelines in the United States, used to transport CO2 to oil production fields where it is then injected into older fields to extract oil. The injection of CO2 to produce oil is generally called Enhanced Oil Recovery or EOR.
  • CO2 sequestration technologies entailing of CO2 capture, transport and storage underground or at depth at sea, could be an immediate potent counter measure to global warming issues.
  • CCS costs depend on factors such as fuel, technology, location, national circumstances and potential CO2 use.
  • Geological storage in saline formations or depleted oil or gas fields typically cost US$0.508.00 per tonne of CO2 injected, plus an additional US$0.100.30 for monitoring costs.

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