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Chlorobenzene

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  • Chlorobenzene is an aromatic organic compound with the chemical formula C6H5Cl. This colorless, flammable liquid is a common solvent and a widely used intermediate in the manufacture of other chemicals.

  • Synonyms of chlorobenzene are Monochlorobenzene, MCB, Phenyl Chloride, Chlorobenzol, Benzene Chloride.

  • Presently it is manufactured by chlorination of benzene in the presence of a catalytic amount of Lewis acid such as ferric chloride and anhydrous aluminium chloride.

  • Chlorobenzene once was used in the manufacture of certain pesticides, most notably DDT by reaction with chloral (trichloroacetaldehyde).

  • The major use of chlorobenzene is as an intermediate in the production of commodities such as herbicides, dyestuffs, and rubber. Chlorobenzene is also used as a high-boiling solvent in many industrial applications as well as in the laboratory.

  • Chlorobenzene absorbs moderately to soil and is biodegraded comparatively rapidly.

  • It is produced by contacting a gaseous flow comprising benzene, oxygen and a halogenating agent, at a temperature of from 190 to 230 C, wih a fluidized bed of catalyst particles comprising copper chloride.These are reductively dechlorinated by anaerobic bacterial cultures obtained from sediments and sludge.

  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been identified as potential organism to decompose chlorobenzene by its crude extract through immobilization technique.

  • Chlorobenzene was used as an inducer to develop specific intracellular enzymes which will decompose chlorobenzene to non toxic substance.

  • In water, chlorobenzene will quickly turn into a vapor, or be broken down by bacteria. When it enters soil, most of it is broken down quickly by bacteria and the rest will turn into a vapor or leach into groundwater.

  • It is used as a solvent for paints, adhesives, polishes, waxes and as a solvent carrier for methylene diisocyanate and is used for manufacture of phenol, p-chloronitrobenzene and pharmaceuticals.

  • Other applications include use as a fiber swelling agent and dye carrier in textile processing, as a tar and grease remover in cleaning and degreasing operations, as a heat-transfer medium.

  • Chlorobenzene undergoes sometimes explosive reaction with powdered sodium or phosphorus trichloride+soidum.

  • It is lipophilic and has a tendency to accumulate in lipid-rich tissues. It is metabolized to generate two kinds of epoxides by cytochrome and these epoxides bind to nucleic acids and form covalent bonds.

  • Chlorobenzene can evaporate when exposed to air. It dissolves slightly when mixed with water.It is relatively mobile in sandy soil and aquifer material and biodegrades very slowly or not at all in these soils and it has a moderate adsorption onto organic soil.

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