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Chlorobenzene is an aromatic
organic compound with the chemical formula C6H5Cl. This colorless,
flammable liquid is a common solvent and a widely used intermediate in
the manufacture of other chemicals.
Synonyms of chlorobenzene are
Monochlorobenzene, MCB, Phenyl Chloride, Chlorobenzol, Benzene Chloride.
Presently it is manufactured by
chlorination of benzene in the presence of a catalytic amount of Lewis
acid such as ferric chloride and anhydrous aluminium chloride.
Chlorobenzene once was used in
the manufacture of certain pesticides, most notably DDT by reaction with
The major use of chlorobenzene
is as an intermediate in the production of commodities such as
herbicides, dyestuffs, and rubber. Chlorobenzene is also used as a
high-boiling solvent in many industrial applications as well as in the
Chlorobenzene absorbs moderately
to soil and is biodegraded comparatively rapidly.
It is produced by contacting a
gaseous flow comprising benzene, oxygen and a halogenating agent, at a
temperature of from 190 to 230 C, wih a fluidized bed of catalyst
particles comprising copper chloride.These are reductively dechlorinated
by anaerobic bacterial cultures obtained from sediments and sludge.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been
identified as potential organism to decompose chlorobenzene by its crude
extract through immobilization technique.
Chlorobenzene was used as an
inducer to develop specific intracellular enzymes which will decompose
chlorobenzene to non toxic substance.
In water, chlorobenzene will
quickly turn into a vapor, or be broken down by bacteria. When it enters
soil, most of it is broken down quickly by bacteria and the rest will
turn into a vapor or leach into groundwater.
It is used as a solvent for
paints, adhesives, polishes, waxes and as a solvent carrier for
methylene diisocyanate and is used for manufacture of phenol, p-chloronitrobenzene
Other applications include use
as a fiber swelling agent and dye carrier in textile processing, as a
tar and grease remover in cleaning and degreasing operations, as a
sometimes explosive reaction with powdered sodium or phosphorus
It is lipophilic and has a
tendency to accumulate in lipid-rich tissues. It is metabolized to
generate two kinds of epoxides by cytochrome and these epoxides bind to
nucleic acids and form covalent bonds.
Chlorobenzene can evaporate when
exposed to air. It dissolves slightly when mixed with water.It is
relatively mobile in sandy soil and aquifer material and biodegrades
very slowly or not at all in these soils and it has a moderate
adsorption onto organic soil.
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