Chlorothalonil (2,4,5,6-tetrachloroisophthalonitrile) is
a polychlorinated aromatic mainly used as a broad spectrum,
non-systemic fungicide, with other uses as a wood protectant,
pesticide, acaricide, and to control mold, mildew, bacteria,
Chlorothalonil is a colourless, odourless white crystalline
solid that is soluble in water.
- Its Action
-Chlorothalonil reduces fungal intracellular glutathione
molecules to alternate forms which cannot participate in
essential enzymatic reactions, ultimately leading to cell death,
similar to the mechanism of trichloromethyl sulfenyl.
- It is applied
as a dust, dry or water-soluble grains, a wettable powder, a
liquid spray, a fog, and a dip. It may be applied by hand, by
ground sprayer, or by aircraft.
Chlorothalonil can by produced by the direct chlorination of
isophthalonitrile or by treating tetrachloroisophthaloyl amide
with phosphoryl chloride. It breaks down under basic conditions
but is stable in neutral and acidic media.
- The acute
oral and dermal toxicity of chlorothalonil is low (oral and
dermal LD50, > 5000 mg/kg bw).
A study of acute inhalation yielded a LC50 of 0.1 mg/L air.
Chlorothalonil is a mild skin irritant and is
severely irritating to the eye.
Chlorothalonil was tested for genotoxicity in vitro and in vivo
in an adequate range of
studies. Chlorothalonil was not mutagenic in bacteria or in
tests for gene mutation in vitro in the
absence or presence of metabolic activation. The results of a
test for chromosomal aberration in CHO
cells in vitro were positive in the absence of metabolic
activation but negative in the presence of
Chlorothalonil is a Group B2 "probable human carcinogen", based
on observations of cancers and tumors of the kidneys and
forestomach in laboratory animals fed diets containing
Chlorothalonil is a kidney and stomach carcinogen in rats and
mice. IARC classifies chlorothalonil as a Group 2B
carcinogen, possibly carcinogenic to humans.
Chlorothalonil can cause irritation of the skin and contact
dermatitis. It may also cause irritation of the mucous membranes
of the eye and respiratory tract.
Chlorothalonil is used as an agricultural and horticultural
fungicide, bactericide, and nematocide.
- It is
typically used on the following crops: citrus fruits, currants,
berries, bananas, tomatoes, green vegetables, coffee,
peanuts,potatoes, onions, and cereals.
- Other uses: a
preservative in paints, adhesives, and wood; an anti-mold and
anti-mildew agent; a micro-biocide, algaecide, insecticide, and
Entrepreneur who want the information such as
Guidelines, Market, Patent, Consultants, Company
Profiles, Suppliers, Report
Email as to