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Information @ a Glance

General Information
  • Chlorothalonil (2,4,5,6-tetrachloroisophthalonitrile) is a polychlorinated aromatic mainly used as a broad spectrum, non-systemic fungicide, with other uses as a wood protectant, pesticide, acaricide, and to control mold, mildew, bacteria, algae.
  • Chlorothalonil is a colourless, odourless white crystalline solid that is soluble in water.
  • Its Action -Chlorothalonil reduces fungal intracellular glutathione molecules to alternate forms which cannot participate in essential enzymatic reactions, ultimately leading to cell death, similar to the mechanism of trichloromethyl sulfenyl.
  • It is applied as a dust, dry or water-soluble grains, a wettable powder, a liquid spray, a fog, and a dip. It may be applied by hand, by ground sprayer, or by aircraft.
  • Chlorothalonil can by produced by the direct chlorination of isophthalonitrile or by treating tetrachloroisophthaloyl amide with phosphoryl chloride. It breaks down under basic conditions but is stable in neutral and acidic media.
Toxicity Information
  • The acute oral and dermal toxicity of chlorothalonil is low (oral and dermal LD50, > 5000 mg/kg bw).
    A study of acute inhalation yielded a LC50 of 0.1 mg/L air. Chlorothalonil is a mild skin irritant and is
    severely irritating to the eye.
  • Chlorothalonil was tested for genotoxicity in vitro and in vivo in an adequate range of
    studies. Chlorothalonil was not mutagenic in bacteria or in tests for gene mutation in vitro in the
    absence or presence of metabolic activation. The results of a test for chromosomal aberration in CHO
    cells in vitro were positive in the absence of metabolic activation but negative in the presence of
    metabolic activation.
  • Chlorothalonil is a Group B2 "probable human carcinogen", based on observations of cancers and tumors of the kidneys and forestomach in laboratory animals fed diets containing chlorothalonil.
  • Chlorothalonil is a kidney and stomach carcinogen in rats and mice.  IARC classifies chlorothalonil as a Group 2B carcinogen, possibly carcinogenic to humans.
  • Chlorothalonil can cause irritation of the skin and contact dermatitis. It may also cause irritation of the mucous membranes of the eye and respiratory tract.

Uses

  • Chlorothalonil is used as an agricultural and horticultural fungicide, bactericide, and nematocide.
  • It is typically used on the following crops: citrus fruits, currants, berries, bananas, tomatoes, green vegetables, coffee, peanuts,potatoes, onions, and cereals.
  • Other uses: a preservative in paints, adhesives, and wood; an anti-mold and anti-mildew agent; a micro-biocide, algaecide, insecticide, and aranicide.

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