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Dendritic Polymers

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  • Dendritic polymers are repetitively branched molecules. Synonymous terms for dendritic polymers include dendrimer, arborols and cascade molecules.

  • Dendrimers are a unique class of synthetic macromolecules having highly branched, three dimensional, nanoscale architecture with very low poly dispersity and high functionality.

  • Dendritic polymers are belonging to hyper-branched macromolecules. They composed of a large number of monomer units that were chemically linked together.

  • One of the very first dendrimers, the Newkome dendrimer, was synthesized in 1985. This macromolecule is also commonly known by the name arborol.

  • Poly(amidoamine), or PAMAM, is perhaps the most well known dendrimer. The core of PAMAM is a diamine (commonly ethylenediamine), which is reacted with methyl acrylate, and then another ethylenediamine to make the generation-0 (G-0) PAMAM.Dendrimers can be considered to have three major portions: a core, an inner shell, and an outer shell.

  • Ideally, a dendrimer can be synthesized to have different functionality in each of these portions to control properties such as solubility, thermal stability, and attachment of compounds for particular applications.

  • There are two defined methods of dendrimer synthesis, divergent synthesis and convergent synthesis.

  • Applications of dendrimers typically involve conjugating other chemical species to the dendrimer surface that can function as detecting agents (such as a dye molecule), affinity ligands, targeting components, radioligands, imaging agents, or pharmaceutically active compounds.

  • Dendrimers are also being investigated for use as blood substitutes. Their steric bulk surrounding a heme-mimetic centre significantly slows degradation compared to free heme, and prevents the cytotoxicity exhibited by free heme.

  • The dendritic molecules comprise arms, each of which arms is a polymer. The dendritic molecules can be synthesised by way of a reasonably small number of versatile and reliable step-wise reactions, especially chemistry reactions.
     

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