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- Dicofol is an organochlorine miticide.
Its structure is similar to dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) and
differs from DDT with replacement of the hydrogen (H) on C-1 by a
hydroxyl (OH) functional group.
- Dicofol or kelthane is a white
crystalline, wettable powder dissolved in a liquid carrier, (water). The
primary hazard is the threat to the environment. Immediate steps should
be taken to limit its spread to the environment. Since it is a liquid it
can easily penetrate the soil and contaminate groundwater and nearby
streams. It can cause illness by inhalation, skin absorption, and/or
ingestion. It is used as a pesticide.
- Other members of this class include
DDT, methoxychlor, chlorbenzilate and ethylan. Less closely related
members include lindane, dieldrin, endrin, chlordane, heptachlor, aldrin,
endosulfan, kepone and toxaphene.
- Dicofol is an organochlorine
pesticide that is chemically related to DDT. Dicofol is a miticide that
is very effective against red spider mite.
- Difference between dicofol and DDT :
Dicofol is structurally similar to DDT. It differs from DDT by the
replacement of the hydrogen (H) on C-1 by a hydroxyl (OH) functional
group. One of the intermediates used in its production is DDT.
- Method of synthesis of Dicofol -
the active ingredient being a mixture of approximately 80%
p,p’-dicofol and 20% o,p’-dicofol - is produced by hydroxylation of
DDT as emulsifiable concentrate and wettable powder formulations.
This implies that:
1. a producer
can purchase DDT and use DDT as a feedstock or starting material to
2. a producer
can make DDT as an intermediate or precursor in house first and
subsequently produce dicofol from DDT. The advantage of this method
is that it eliminates the need to transport DDT itself.
- Usually dicofol is synthesized
from technical DDT. During this synthesis, DDT is first chlorinated
to an intermediate, Cl-DDT, followed by hydrolyzing to dicofol.
After the synthesis reaction, DDT and Cl-DDT may remain in the
dicofol product as impurities.
Physical and Chemical
- Boilting point: 225℃
- Density: 1.45 g/cm3
- Water solubility:
- Other solubility: In acetone,
ethyl acetate, toluene 400, methanol 36,hexane, isopropanol
30(all in g/l, 25℃).
- Ph value: 5-8
- Flash point: 193℃(open cup)
- Ignition temperature: 4.3
- Chemical names:
- Appearance: Pure dicofol is a
white crystalline solid. Technical dicofol is a red-brown or
amber viscous liquid with an odor like fresh-cut hay.
- Solubility: It is stable
under cool and dry conditions, is practically insoluble in water
but soluble in organic solvents.
- Solubility: 0.8 mg/l (25 °C)
- Melting Point: 78.5 - 79.5 °C
for pure dicofol, 50 °C for technical dicofol
- Vapor Pressure: Negligible at
- In surface water, dicofol
is expected to adsorb to sediment and can hydrolyse to
dichlorobenzophenone. Dicofol accumulates in body fat to a
plateau level related to absorption.
- In California 66% of
dicofol use was on cotton during 2001-2006, followed by
beans (12%), orange (6%), walnut (4%), and wine grapes (2%).
Other 54 crops accounted for only 10%.
- Dicofol is moderately
persistent in soil with half-lives ranging 15.9 – 339 days
depending on soil type, pH, redox potential, organic carbon
content, moisture content, and microbial population. It is
almost insoluble in water and adsorbs very strongly to soil
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