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Information @ a Glance

General

  • Dicofol is an organochlorine miticide. Its structure is similar to dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) and differs from DDT with replacement of the hydrogen (H) on C-1 by a hydroxyl (OH) functional group.
  • Dicofol or kelthane is a white crystalline, wettable powder dissolved in a liquid carrier, (water). The primary hazard is the threat to the environment. Immediate steps should be taken to limit its spread to the environment. Since it is a liquid it can easily penetrate the soil and contaminate groundwater and nearby streams. It can cause illness by inhalation, skin absorption, and/or ingestion. It is used as a pesticide.
  • Other members of this class include DDT, methoxychlor, chlorbenzilate and ethylan. Less closely related members include lindane, dieldrin, endrin, chlordane, heptachlor, aldrin, endosulfan, kepone and toxaphene.
  • Dicofol is an organochlorine pesticide that is chemically related to DDT. Dicofol is a miticide that is very effective against red spider mite.
  • Difference between dicofol and DDT : Dicofol is structurally similar to DDT. It differs from DDT by the replacement of the hydrogen (H) on C-1 by a hydroxyl (OH) functional group. One of the intermediates used in its production is DDT.
     

Process

  • Method of synthesis of Dicofol - the active ingredient being a mixture of approximately 80% p,p-dicofol and 20% o,p-dicofol - is produced by hydroxylation of DDT as emulsifiable concentrate and wettable powder formulations. This implies that:
               1.  a producer can purchase DDT and use DDT as a feedstock or starting material to  produce dicofol;
               2.  a producer can make DDT as an intermediate or precursor in house first and subsequently produce dicofol from DDT. The advantage of this method is that it eliminates the need to transport DDT itself.
  • Usually dicofol is synthesized from technical DDT. During this synthesis, DDT is first chlorinated to an intermediate, Cl-DDT, followed by hydrolyzing to dicofol. After the synthesis reaction, DDT and Cl-DDT may remain in the dicofol product as impurities.

Physical and Chemical Properties

  • Boilting point: 225℃
  • Density: 1.45 g/cm3
  • Water solubility: 0.8mg/l(25℃)
  • Other solubility: In acetone, ethyl acetate, toluene 400, methanol 36,hexane, isopropanol 30(all in g/l, 25℃).
  • Ph value: 5-8
  • Flash point: 193℃(open cup)
  • Ignition temperature: 4.3
  • Chemical names: 2,2,2-Trichloro-1,1-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethanol
  • Appearance: Pure dicofol is a white crystalline solid. Technical dicofol is a red-brown or amber viscous liquid with an odor like fresh-cut hay.
  • Solubility: It is stable under cool and dry conditions, is practically insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents.
  • Solubility: 0.8 mg/l (25 C) in water.
  • Melting Point: 78.5 - 79.5 C for pure dicofol, 50 C for technical dicofol
  • Vapor Pressure: Negligible at room temperature

Report

  • In surface water, dicofol is expected to adsorb to sediment and can hydrolyse to dichlorobenzophenone. Dicofol accumulates in body fat to a plateau level related to absorption.
  • In California 66% of dicofol use was on cotton during 2001-2006, followed by beans (12%), orange (6%), walnut (4%), and wine grapes (2%). Other 54 crops accounted for only 10%.
  • Dicofol is moderately persistent in soil with half-lives ranging 15.9 339 days depending on soil type, pH, redox potential, organic carbon content, moisture content, and microbial population. It is almost insoluble in water and adsorbs very strongly to soil particles.
     

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