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Dioxane

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  • 1,4-Dioxane, often called dioxane because the 1,2 and 1,3 isomers of dioxane are rare, is a heterocyclic organic compound. It is a colorless liquid with a faint sweet odor similar to that of diethyl ether. It is classified as an ether.

  • It is a volatile organic compound that has a moderate vapor pressure and has a specific gravity of 1.033. It is very mobile and only weakly retarded by sorption during transport.

  • This colorless liquid is mainly used as a stabilizer for the solvent trichloroethane. It is an occasionally used solvent for a variety of practical applications as well as in the laboratory.

  • Dioxane is produced by the acid-catalyzed dehydration of diethylene glycol, which in turn arises from the hydrolysis of ethylene oxide.

  • Dioxane is primarily used as a stabilizer for 1,1,1-trichloroethane for storage and transport in aluminium containers.

  • 1,4-Dioxane is a cyclic ether, and is also known as p-dioxane, diethylene ether, diethylene dioxide and glycol ethylene ether. This compound is highly soluble in water, owing to its molecular structure.

  • It is flammable and is available in reagent technical ( more than 99.9% pure), spectrophotometric and scintillation grades.

  • It is used in various manufacturing process and is included in a variety of consumer and commercial products.

  • Dioxane is used as a reaction medium solvent in organic chemical manufacture, as a wetting agent and dispersing agent in textile processing, as a liquid scintillation counting medium, as a reagent for laboratory research and testing, in the preparation of histological sections for microscopic examination and in stain and printing compositions.

  • Uses include paper manufacturing (solvent), paint and varnish remover, deodorants, shampoos , soaps and cosmetics, in furnigants and pesticides, in textile manufacturing, in pharmaceuticals as a purifying agent, and as an antifreeze additive.

  • The concentration of 1,4-Dioxane is measure by relating the MS response of the quantitation ion to the response of the deuterated surrogate standard quantitation ion.

  • 1,4 dioxane is also produced as a by-product during the manufacture of polyester.

  • It is a recalcitrant molecule to biodegrade under conventional biotreatment technologies.

  • 1,4-Dioxane is an EPA priority pollutant often found in contaminated ground waters and industrial effluents. The common techniques used for water purification are not applicable to 1,4-dioxane and the currently used method (distillation) is laborious and expensive.

  • It is a byproduct of the hydrolysis of ethylene oxide and can be found in approximately 46% of all personal care products like lotions, shampoos and liquid soaps.

  • Testing for 1,4-Dioxane at low levels can be problematic due to its affinity for water, decreasing its volatility and purge efficiency by traditional purge and trap methods.

  • Chemical characteristics of 1,4-dioxane such as high mobility, enable it to migrate much further than the solvent from which it likely originated.

  • A catalyzed conversion of diethylene glycol to 1,4-dioxane undertaken over zeolites, ZSM-5,ZSM-48 and Zeolite beta is characterized by high selectivity.

  • Dioxane is an important industrial solvent for cellulose esters and ether, and other oils and resins. It can be produced from the less valuable reactant, diethyleneglycol; diethylene is a byproduct of ethylene glycol synthesis.

  • Dehydrating polyethylene glycol to 1,4-dioxane using a solid cation exchange resin as the dehydration catalyst.

  • A Process for destroying dioxane in a water vapor stream includes combusting the stream to decompose dioxane contained therein. The process is particularly useful for removal of dioxane from byproducts streams which result during the production of polyester.

  • A bromine chloride complex of p-dioxane has been discovered which is useful as a solid source of bromine chloride.

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