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Disinfectants are substances that are applied to non-living objects to
destroy microorganisms that are living on the objects.Disinfection does
not necessarily kill all microorganisms, especially nonresistant
bacterial spores; it is less effective than sterilisation, which is an
extreme physical and/or chemical process that kills all types of life.
Disinfectant types include Air Disinfectants, Alcohols, Aldehydes,
Oxidizing Agents , Phenolics, Quaternary ammonium compounds, Silver,
Copper alloy surfaces.
Disinfection was first introduced by Lister who introduced "carbolic
acid" (phenol), the first disinfectant. Today disinfectants are widely
used in the health care, food and pharmaceutical sectors to prevent
unwanted microorganisms from causing disease.
Disinfection is defined as a process that eliminates many if not all
pathogenic organisms. Most agricultural, veterinary and food users are
aiming for disinfection since their facilities are not designed for
Disinfectants depend on binding or reaction with bacterial cell
membranes to kill microorganisms. Disinfectant chemicals are not
selective, formaldehyde will react with any acceptor not just microbial
proteins, similar observations have been made for all the other
perfect disinfectant would also offer complete and full microbiological
sterilisation, without harming humans and useful forms of life, be
inexpensive, and non-corrosive.
Disinfection of drinking-water is essential if we are to protect the
public from outbreaks of waterborne infectious and parasitic diseases.
The main disinfectants are free chlorine, chloramines, chlorine dioxide
is the most efficient disinfectant for all types of microorganism.
Chlorine for disinfection typically is used in one of three forms:
chlorine gas, sodium hypochlorite, or calcium hypochlorite.
disinfectant and antimicrobial chemical market will grow five percent
annually through 2009 based on concerns about bacterial and pathogenic
threats. Phenolic compounds, iodophors, nitrogen compounds and
organometallics will remain the top products. The dominant disinfectant
segment will outpace antimicrobials.
Disinfectant and anti-microbial chemical demand will increase 3.6%/year,
to $1.2 billion in 2013.
will be driven by consumer fears of pathogens in food and around the
home, as well as by an expected rebound in production of coatings,
plastics, and other key end-products.
for disinfectants that sanitize food preparation surfaces especially are
gaining traction, given the high risks associated with foodborne
pathogens and bacterial and viral food related infections.
is also increased usage of disinfectant chemicals in various
conventional cleaning products. Increased consumer focus on meeting
safety, social, and self-actualization needs, especially by enabling
safe food storage, eliminating pests and insects, disinfecting household
surfaces, controlling garbage in a hygienic manner and by improving
sanitary conditions are driving gains for disinfectants in the consumer
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