- Dyes and dyestuffs are
available for applications on different types of materials like
textile, paper as well as for painting and printing. Different types
of the same material like different types of fabrics require dyes of
different composition to colour them.
- Different varieties of
dyes are available in the market like sun dyes and transfer dyes,
landscape dyes and many more. One can find all these different types
of dyes with dyes and dyestuffs manufacturers.
- A Greek artifact known
as the Stockholm Papyrus details dyestuffs and techniques in almost
a recipe fashion as it was practiced Egypt in the third and fourth
centuries CE. Venice was one of the major early centers for imported
dyestuffs, supplying Brazilwood (Caesalpinia sappan) from the East,
lac (another insect dye) and indigo from India from the fifteenth
century CE onward.
- The preparation and
use of dyestuffs is one of the oldest of human activities, as
evidenced by the unearthing of ancient fabrics at archeological
sites, as well as accounts in the Bible and works of classical
antiquity. A range of synthetic dyestuffs appears in Britain and
- A series of monoazo
disperse dyestuffs derived from naphthalimide were prepared.
4-Amino-N-methyl (alternatively N-ethyl, N-propyl, N-butyl)
derivatives of naphthalimide were utilised as the diazo components
and -naphthol, N,N-diethyl-m-toluidine, and p-aminoacetophenone
constituted the coupling components.
- Unmodified polyester
fibres can only be dyed with disperse dyestuffs either with the aid
of carriers at 100oC (no longer desirable due to environmental
limitations), or at elevated temperatures (130oC for the exhaustion
processes and 210oC for the thermosol processes).
- PAC is prepared
utilizing the aluminum chloride wastewater as a raw material through
the controlled release membrane reactor (CRMR) system and to
evaluate their performances on the sedimentation to four different
dyestuffs, such as Titan Yellow (T.Y.), Methyl Orange (M.O.), Food
Yellow (F.Y.) and Procion Red (P.R.).
- The use of Eastman
Kodak ChromagramŽ2 sheet for the separation of the various dyestuffs
used in the compounding of inks which has developed into one of the
more useful techniques for the identification of inks. Both silica
gel and cellulose ChromagramŽ sheets are now commonly used with a
variety of eluent systems.
- The dyestuffs from
three groups of visually similar wool samples (12 reds, 18 blues,
and 12 blacks) have been characterized by five different methods.
Mounted fibers were examined nondestructively with white light
microscopy, UV fluorescence microscopy, and microspectrophotometry;
after dye extraction, solution spectrophotometry and thin-layer
chromatography were used.
- Chemical Industry is
an important constituent of the Indian economy. Its size is
estimated at around US$ 35 billion approx., which is equivalent to
about 3% of India's GDP. The total investment in Indian Chemical
Sector is approx. US$ 60 billion and total employment generated is
about 1 million. The Indian Chemical sector accounts for 13-14% of
total exports and 8-9% of total imports of the country.
- Chemical industry in
India is amongst the largest globally and ranks 6th worldwide and
3rd across Asia. Closure of a number of manufacturing units in the
developed nations due to stringent environmental regulations has led
to further growth of the dyestuff industry in India. Textile
constitutes the major proportion of demand for dyestuff; however,
requirements from other manufacturing sectors such as paints, paper
and leather has given the market further impetus.
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