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Information @ a Glance

General

  • Fluvalinate is synthetic flower compound, a stable non-volatile fat compound, used to control varroa mite populations in honey bee colonies.
  • Trade names include Apistan, Klartan, Mavrik, Mavrik Aqua Flow, Spur, Taufluvalinate, and Yardex.
  • Fluvalinate is a synthetic pyrethroid which is used as a broad spectrum insecticide against moths, beetles and other insect pests on cotton, cereal, grape, potato, fruit tree, vegetable and plantation crops, fleas, and turf and ornamental insects. It is available in emulsifiable concentrates, suspensions and flowable formulations.
  • Fluvalinate effectiveness was demonstrated in France and Israel. Although the compound may be found in drones, a study has found honey samples virtually absent of fluvalinate, on account of its affinity to beeswax.

Toxicity

  • Fluvalinate is a moderately toxic compound in EPA toxicity class II.
  • Fluvalinate is slightly toxic to birds. The acute oral LD50 for fluvalinate in bobwhite quail is greater than 2510 mg/kg
  • Most pyrethroids are highly toxic to honey bees, tau-fluvalinate is tolerated in high concentrations due in large part to rapid detoxification by cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s)
  • Fluvalinate is nearly insoluble in water and it has a strong tendency to bind to soil particles.
  • In 1995 EPA reported the LD50 of fluvalinate as 0.2μg/bee, a level that is considered to be highly toxic (EPA-OPP 2005) to honey bees.
  • In water, fluvalinate is subject to photodegradation with a half-life of up to 1 day. Photodegradation yields anilino acid and 3-phenoxy benzoic acid. Fluvalinate is stable to hydrolysis under normal environmental temperatures and pH.
     

Report

  • The synthetic pyrethroids, which include fluvalinate and flumethrin, are notable for the numerous ways in which pests have developed resistance (Pridgeon 2002)
  • Fluvalinate is the active ingredient in Apistan varroa strips, used in the USA and UK.
  • Fluvalinate (sold as Apistan) is considered a low risk pesticide by the Environmental Protection Agency.
  • The original formulation of fluvalinate (racemic or having multiple forms) had an established lethal dose that killed 50% of the tested population (LD50) at 65.85 μg/bee for honey bees, which is considered relatively non-toxic (Atkins et al. 1981).
  • The pyrethroid tau-fluvalinate, a subset of isomers of fluvalinate, was the first synthetic varroacide registered for use in honey bee colonies in the USA.
  • In the early 1990ís racemic fluvalinate was replaced with tau-fluvalinate (having a single form) resulting in a 2-fold increase in toxicity of this material to honey bees.
     

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