Hypodermic needle

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  • Hypodermic needles (sometimes known as ''Hypodermic syringes'') are used for many applications right from administering shots to drawing blood. The needles are long, hollow cylinders which has a puncturing point at the tip to pierce the skin of the patient.
  • Hypodermic syringes (means ‘under the skin’) are also used to extract liquid such as blood from the body.
  • Hypodermic needles can be classified by the bevel and gauge of the needle.
  • Hypodermic syringe was invented by "Charles Gabriel Pravaz (1791-1853), French surgeon, and Alexander Wood (1817-1884), Scottish physician. Later, Roehr Products introduced a plastic hypodermic needle which is disposable called the Monoject.
  • There are many manufacturing plants in and out of India. One of which is located at china with the  total plant area of around 340,000 square meters including 5,000 square meters of 100,000 class clean workshop.
  • Hypodermic needles can be used as reusable or disposable. Disposable hypodermic needles are used mostly, placed in a container after only one use. Reusable needles can be used by the individuals such as diabetic patient to administer their own shots. But use of Reusable syringes may lead to infections or transmit diseases if it is not properly cleaned. And also, they must be sterilizable and nontoxic.
  • The bevel of the needle is the one which creates the sharpness of the tip. The standard bevel is the longest and sharpest of all other types and is the most delicate and easily bluntable bevel. The true short bevel is the least sharp and most sturdy of all bevel types.The short bevel is the one in between the standard and true short and used in many applications.
  • Since hypodermic needles come directly in contact with the interior body, government regulations require that they be made from biocompatible materials which are inert pharmacologically.
  • There are many different types of materials used to construct the hypodermic needles. Carbon steel, Glass, Synthetic rubber, Stainless steel and Plastic are the raw materials required to manufacture a hypodermic needle. But the needles are generally made of a heat-treatable stainless steel or carbon steel. Many are nickel plated in order to prevent corrosion.
  • The main body of the tube can be made of plastic, glass, or both. Plastics are also used to make the plunger handle and  for making the plunger head flexible synthetic rubber is used . Steel is heated first until molten stage as the needle is produced from it and then its drawn through a die designed to meet the size of the needle.
  • The steel is further formed and rolled into a continuous, hollow wire as it moves along the production line.
  • The wire is then appropriately cut to form the desired needle. Some needles are significantly more complex and are produced directly from a die casting.
  • At this stage, the plastic or glass is supplied as granules or powder and fed into a large machine called hopper. The extrusion process involves a large spiral screw, forcing the material through a heated chamber and makes it a thick, flowing mass. It is then forced through a die, producing a continuous tube that is cooled and cut.
  • The plastic is heated and converted into a liquid. It is then forcibly injected into a mold which is the inverse of the desired shape. Once it cools, it solidifies and maintains its shape after the die is opened. Later, the head of the plunger is attached to the plunger handle.
  • Global market for Hypodermic needles is projected to reach $3.7 billion by the year 2015 and $4.0 billion by 2017. Product-wise, hypodermic needles account for the largest market share, while intravenous needles constitute the fastest growing segment.
  • According to a study, approximately 19 billion hypodermic syringes are used worldwide per annum.
  • A hypodermic syringe manufacturer has integrated an  automated eddy current testing solutions their production lines to test 100% of cracks and defects in the needles.

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