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Information @ a Glance

General

  • Imazethapyr is a selective systemic herbicide. It is registered for preplant, pre-emergence or postemergence use on terrestrial food and/or feed crops.
  • Imazethapyr is a highly efficient herbicide, In 1987, imazethapyr was launched for the control of broad-leaved weeds and grasses, mainly in soybeans.
  • Imazethapyr, a heterocyclic aromatic amine, is a widely used crop herbicide first registered for use in the United States in
    1989.
  • Imazethapyr may be used alone or in co-formulation with imazamox or pendimethalin to control a broad spectrum of broadleaf and grassy weeds. It is applied once per year at a rate of 10 to 100 g a.e./ha by ground equipment only.
  • Imazethapyr has also been widely used in soybeans, field peas and processing peas. It is the only herbicide registered for the control of broadleaf weeds in chickling vetch and fenugreek.
  • Imazethapyr is the only alternative for the control of grassy weeds in chickling vetch and fenugreek. Imazethapyr controls both grassy and broadleaf weeds in adzuki beans, lima beans, snap common beans and dry common beans while alternatives only control either grassy or broadleaf weeds.

Properties

  • Imazethapyr [5-ethyl-2-(4-isopropyl-4-methyl-5-oxo-2-imidazolin-2-yl) nicotinic acid] belongs to a class of chemicals known as imidazolinones.
  • Apperance - Technical imazethapyr is an off-white to tan solid with a slightly pungent odor. The formulated product is a clear dark brown liquid with a musty odor.
  • The vapour pressure of imazethapyr determined by the gas saturation method was less than 1 x 10-7 mm Hg (torr) (1.3 x 10-5 Pa) at 60oC. This vapour pressure indicated that the herbicide would not be volatile if applied to soil or plant surfaces.
  • The water solubility of imazethapyr was high (1415 mg/L in distilled water and 3685 mg/L in water buffered at pH 3.9, both at 25/C). Considering the very high water solubility and the low vapour pressure of this herbicide, Henry’s Law Constant (air/water distribution ratio) was calculated to be 2.7 x 10-11 atm.m3 mol-1 indicating a high potential for the chemical to remain in water rather than volatilize into the air.

Toxicity

  • Imazethapyr is a general use pesticide with a toxicity classification of III (slightly toxic)
  • Acute overexposures to imazethapyr resulted in low toxicity by the oral, dermal and inhalation routes, results showed that contact with the eye may cause mild eye irritation.
  • Imazethapyr presents negligible risk to wild birds, mammals, bees, earthworms, fish, amphibians, aquatic invertebrates and algae because concentrations in the environments are expected to be at levels that are not harmful.
  • For bladder cancer, participants in the highest exposure category of imazethapyr had a 137% higher risk than nonexposed pesticide applicators. For colon cancer, detailed analysis by subsite revealed that imazethapyr use was significantly associated with a 173% increased risk of proximal cancers, but not with distal or rectal cancers.
  • Oral Acute oral LD50 for male and female rats, and female mice >5000 mg/kg. Skin and eye Acute percutaneous LD50 for rabbits >2000 mg/kg; Mild skin and reversible eye irritant. Inhalation LC50 for rats 3.27 mg/l air (analytical), 4.21 mg/l (gravimetric). NOEL (2 y) for rats >10 000 mg/kg diet; (1 y) for dogs >10 000 mg/kg diet (highest dose tested).

Report

  • Imazethapyr, an imidazolinone herbicide similar to imazaquin in chemical structure and weed control properties,
    received federal registration for use in the spring of 1989.
  • Imazethapyr residue persistence, reported in a Canadian study on soils of pH ranging from 5.4 to 7.0, was found to be greater in the lower pH soils. Drier than normal soil conditions during the growing season when imazethapyr was applied, giving reduced microbial activity, also led to greater persistence.
  • Imazethapyr-tolerant ‘Clearfield’ rice was released to producers in 2002. This allows the use of imazethapyr, a broad-spectrum herbicide that will control red rice, annual grasses, annual sedges, and many broadleaved and aquatic weeds in rice.
  • The removal of imazethapyr in aqueous solutions was studied using powder TiO2 as semiconductor photocatalyst.
  • Experiments were conducted from 2000 to 2002 at two locations each year to determine if lactofen and imazethapyr injury to soybean could be detected using digital aerial imagery and ground-based optical remote sensing.

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