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Information @ a Glance

General

  • Metolachlor is a chloroacetanilide type herbicide that is applied for preemergent control of grasses and broadleaf weeds on agricultural crop land, including corn, soybeans, sorghum and other crops, and on non-crop land for general weed control.
  • Metolachlor was developed by Ciba-Geigy. Its acts by inhibition of elongases and of the geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP) cyclases, which are part of the gibberellin pathway.
  • Trade names for products containing metolachlor include Bicep, CGA-24705, Dual, Pennant, and Pimagram.
  • Metolachlor is produced from 2-ethyl-6-methylaniline ("MEA") via condensation with methoxyacetone. The resulting imine is hydrogenated to give primarily the S-stereoisomeric amine.
  • It is classified as a Category C pesticide by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) which indicates limited evidence of carcinogenicity.

Process

  • Preparation of Sample : Weigh (to the nearest 0.1 mg) enough sample to contain about 200 mg pure metolachlor into a 50 ml volumetric flask.
  • Pipet 0.50ml of the calibration solution into the flask and dilute to volume with dichloromethane and shake the flask for
    about 10 minutes. In case of a dispersion centrifuge or filter the dispersion through a 0.45
    µm filter.
  • The c1ear solution is then ready for injection.

Uses

  • Metolachlor is a herbicide used on a number of crops to control annual grasses and many broad-leaved weeds.
  • It is used for grass and broadleaf weed control in corn, soybean, peanuts, sorghum, and cotton. It is also used in combination with other herbicides.
  • It is a germination inhibitor active mainly on grasses at 1.0-2.5 kg ai/hectare Mixtures with other herbicides are also used in broad beans, carrots, hemp, lentils, paprika. Dual 8E is a selective herbicide for control of annual grass weeds, yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus), and certain broadleaf species.
  • In soil, metolachlor is transformed to its metabolites primarily by biodegradation. The half-life of metolachlor disappearance from soil is about 90 days, although very little mineralization has been observed.

Report

  • Estimated usage of metolachlor in the United States is 60-65 million pounds active ingredient per year (Environmental Protection Agency, 1997).
  • In a study by Hall et al. (1999), metolachlor showed an average acute toxicity level of 53 μg/L based on acute laboratory studies and sensitivity to metolachlor was as follows: plants – 106 μg/L, benthos – 3,103 μg/L, and fish – 4,334 μg/L.
  • Metolachlor’s half-life in soil varies depending on soil type and environmental conditions, and is estimated to be between 15-132 days (USDA 1995, Extoxnet, 2000a, and Kollman and Segawa, 1997).
  • In a study of surface water samples in 1997, metolachlor was detected in 1644 samples (from 312 locations in 14 states) at a maximum concentration of 138 ppb. The high concentrations were probably the result of runoff during spring and summer applications to crops.

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