Multiaxial fabric

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  • In recent years multiaxial fabrics have begun to find favour in the construction of composite components.
  • Industrial applications present huge potential use of multiaxial fabrics for the increasingly complex and demanding requirements of today’s developing market.
  • Multiaxial machines enable reinforcement materials to be made in one single manufacturing process.
  • These materials comprise uni-axial nonwoven plies (0°, 90°, + or – 45°) which are laid one on top of the other and stitched together.
  • These fabrics consist of one or more layers of long fibres held in place by a secondary non-structural stitching tread.
  • The main fibres can be any of the structural fibres available in any combination.
  • The stitching thread is usually polyester because of its combination of appropriate fibre properties (for binding the fabric together) and cost.
  • The stitching process allows a variety of fibre orientations, beyond the simple 0/90° of woven fabrics, to be combined into one fabric.
  • The two main improvements with stitched multiaxial fabrics over woven types are: Better mechanical properties, mainly from the fact that the fibres are always straight and non-crimped, and that more orientations of fibre are available from the increased number of layers of fabric.
  • With the 'Weave & Stitch' method the +45° and -45° layers can be made by weaving weft Uni-directionals and then skewing the fabric, on a special machine, to 45°.
  • A warp unidirectional or a weft unidirectional can also be used unskewed to make a 0° and 90° layer If both 0° and 90° layers are present in a multi-layer stitched fabric then this can be provided by a conventional 0/90° woven fabric.
  • Due to the fact that heavy rovings can be used to make each layer the weaving process is relatively fast, as is the subsequent stitching together of the layers via a simple stitching frame.
  • To make a quadraxial (four-layer: +45°, 0°, 90°, -45°) fabric by this method, a weft unidirectional would be woven and skewed in one direction to make the +45° layer, and in the other to make the -45° layer. The 0° and 90° layers would appear as a single woven fabric. These three elements would then be stitched together on a stitching frame to produce the final four-axis fabric.
  • Simultaneous stitch manufacture is carried out on special machines based on the knitting process, such as those made by Liba, Malimo, Mayer, etc. Each machine varies in the precision with which the fibres are laid down, particularly with reference to keeping the fibres parallel.
  • Textile major Arvind Ltd, flagship enterprise of the $1-billion Lalbhai Group, on Tuesday announced the formation of a joint venture with the Germany-based PD Fiber Glass Group for the manufacture of glass fabrics in India with an investment of Rs 80 crore over the next five years.

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