Myclobutanil is a conazole class fungicide.
It is used heavily to control
fungi affecting wine and table grapes, especially in California.
Pale yellow solid; does not
mix well with water (142 mg/l, 25 C).
Soluble in most common
solvents such as ketones, esters, alcohols, and aromatic
hydrocarbons (all 50-100 g/l).
Aqueous solutions decompose on
exposure to light DT50 222 d (sterile water), 0.8 d (sensitised
sterile water), 25 d (pond water); no hydrolysis (28 C) in 28 d (pH
It also has a number of other
food crop and commercial or residential landscaping applications.
Myclobutanil is registered for
use on a wide range of food and feed crops.
It may also be used in
greenhouses, public rights of way, turf, and in landscaping
Cotton seeds may be treated
with myclobutanil (EPA).California accounts for roughly 50% of all
myclobutanil use in the US, using 70,000 to 90,000 lbs. annually.
Grapes are the most heavily
treated crop, using 60% of all myclobutanil in California.
Almonds and strawberries are also account for a notable percentage
of myclobutanil use in California (EPA).
In 2005 11.96 million tonnes
of apples were produced from 575,796 hectares (ha) in the 25 member
states of the European Union .This production was accompanied by
high levels of pesticide use.
The first registration of a
DMI for use against U. necator in Canada was myclobutanil in 1992, 3
years after its registration in the U.S.A. Prior to 1999,
myclobutanil gave a high degree of mildew control in commercial
vineyards in Ontario and also in experimental programs where it was
Myclobutanil and propiconazole
were ranked in the 90th percentile for the induction of genes
associated with the Nrf2-mediated oxidative stress pathway, based on
the normalized distribution of the sum of the gene perturbation
values (log10 ratios) across all 1738 reference liver experiments.
Leaves with new apple scab
lesions were collected in May, June, July and August of 2007, and
over 400 isolates of Vi were cultured from these lesions. Fungicide
resistance was evaluated in 82 of these isolates by monitoring their
growth on agar plates containing 0 ppm, 0.1 ppm, 0.5 ppm, or 1 ppm
myclobutanil (Nova 40W).Radial colony growth was measured weekly for
4 weeks. A similar range of fungicide resistance was observed for
isolates collected at each sampling interval.
Repeated treatments of
myclobutanil to a mixed population of Vi may result in a range of
fungicide resistance in these populations, but this selective
pressure may act over multiple growing seasons.
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