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Nitrobenzene

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  • Nitrobenzene is an organic compound with the chemical formula C6H5NO2. It is a water-insoluble pale yellow oil with an almond-like odor. It freezes to give greenish- yellow crystals.
  • It is produced on a large scale as a precursor to aniline. Although occasionally used as a flavoring or perfume additive, nitrobenzene is highly toxic in large quantities. In the laboratory, it is occasionally used as a solvent, especially for electrophilic reagents.
  • Nitrobenzene is an oily yellow to yellow-brown liquid that smells like bitter almonds or shoe polish. Nitrobenzene dissolves only slightly in water and easily in other chemicals. It is man- made. Very low levels of nitrobenzene may be found in air and/or water. The levels remain low even near sites where nitrobenzene is made or used. Nitrobenzene is rarely found in drinking water. Industries manufacture nitrobenzene to make a chemical called aniline, to make oil for motors and machines, and to produce dyes, drugs, pesticides and rubber.
  • Nitrobenzene is prepared by nitration of benzene with a mixture of concentrated sulfuric acid, water, and nitric acid. This mixture is sometimes called "mixed acid." The production of nitrobenzene is one of the more dangerous processes conducted in the chemical industry because of the exothermicity of the reaction (ΔH = −117 kJ/mol.
  • World capacity for nitrobenzene in 1985 was about 1.7106 tonnes.Approximately 95% of nitrobenzene is consumed in the production of aniline, which is a precursor to rubber chemicals, pesticides, dyes, explosives, and pharmaceuticals.
  • Nitrobenzene is also used in shoe and floor polishes, leather dressings, paint solvents, and other materials to mask unpleasant odors. Redistilled, as oil of mirbane, nitrobenzene has been used as an inexpensive perfume for soaps. A significant merchant market for nitrobenzene is its use in the production of the analgesic
    paracetamol.
  • Small amounts of nitrobenzene are released to the air and to bodies of water by the industries that use this chemical. However, it is broken down to other chemicals within a few days after it is released.
  • Air and water in most areas contain no nitrobenzene or such low amounts that they cannot be measured.

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