Pantothenic Acid

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  • Pantothenic acid, also called pantothenate or vitamin B5 (a B vitamin), is a water-soluble vitamin. For many animals, pantothenic acid is an essential nutrient.

  • Animals require pantothenic acid to synthesize coenzyme-A (CoA), as well as to synthesize and metabolize proteins, carbohydrates, and fats.

  • Pantothenic acid is the amide between pantoate and beta-alanine. Its name derives from the Greek pantothen meaning "from everywhere" and small quantities of pantothenic acid are found in nearly every food, with high amounts in whole-grain cereals, legumes, eggs, meat, royal jelly, avocado, and yogurt.

  • It is composed of beta-alanine and 2,4-dihydroxy-3, 3-dimethylbutyric acid (pantoic acid), acid amide-linked. Pantetheine consists of pantothenic acid linked to a b-mercaptoethylamine group.

  • The structure of pantothenic acid contains a single asymmetric center, so that it is optically active, only the natural isomer has vitamin activity.

  • Pantothenic acid is used in the synthesis of coenzyme A (CoA). Coenzyme A may act as an acyl group carrier to form acetyl-CoA and other related compounds; this is a way to transport carbon atoms within the cell.

  • The derivative of pantothenic acid, pantothenol, is a more stable form of the vitamin and is often used as a source of the vitamin in multivitamin supplements. Another common supplemental form of the vitamin is calcium pantothenate.

  • Calcium pantothenate is often used in dietary supplements because, as a salt, it is more stable than pantothenic acid in the digestive tract, allowing for better absorption.

  • Pantothenic acid derivatives, panthenol, phosphopantethine and pantethine, have also been seen to improve the lipid profile in the blood and liver.

  • Pantothenic acid is stable under neutral conditions, but is readily destroyed by heat in alkaline or acid solutions. Pantothenyl alcohol, an alcohol analog of pantothenic acid is also a pharmaceutically
    important unnatural derivative.

  • Vitamin b5 plays a key role in cellular energy production, adrenal and cardiovascular health, and synthesis of vitamins, amino acids, fatty acids, cholesterol and steroid hormones.

  • The body uses pantothenic acid to make proteins as well as other important chemicals needed to metabolize fats and carbohydrates.

  • In the body, pantothenic acid is converted to a related chemical known as pantethine.

  • Pantothenic acid is also used in the manufacture of hormones, red blood cells and an
    important neurotransmitter.

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