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Information @ a Glance

  • Alkyl Ketene Dimmer (AKD) also called AKD wax and Alkenyl Succinic Anhydride (ASA) are
    wax like chemicals. Both AKD and ASA are used as sizing chemicals for paper.
  • Traditionally Rosin (Acidic sizing) was used as paper sizing material.
  • Due to changes in paper manufacturing technologies the sizing process is changed to alkaline/neutral sizing from
    acidic sizing. AKD and ASA are the main neutral sizing chemicals.
  • Sizing additives may be added through the wet end (internal sizing) or applied to the surface of the paper (surface sizing).
  •  The most important sizing products are still rosin sizes, AKD, ASA used for internal sizing and styrene-maleic anhydride (SMA), polyurethanes and starches used mainly as surface sizes.
  • AKD and ASA share the market in North America, while AKD is used predominantly in Europe.
  • At present, alkaline processes are used to produce 20% of the paper and paperboard made in the United States.
  • During past years, mainly a rosin in combination with alum was used. When the paper industry started using chalk instead of to china clay as filler, the paper chemistry had to switch to a neutral process.
  • Today mainly AKD (alkyl ketene dimer) and ASA ( alkenyl succinic anhydride) are used.
  • Internal sizing chemicals used in papermaking at the wet end are ASA, AKD and rosin.
  • By making the paper web more hydrophobic, the sizing agents influence dewatering and retention of fillers and fibers in the paper sheet.
  • Next to paper quality, internal sizing agents' main effect is on runability of the paper machine.
  • There is a definitive trend in the industry toward surface sizing applications that is mostly related to significant improvements in size press technology such as speed sizers, which offer good runnability and allow for good economics.

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