Phosphamidon                                      

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Introduction

  • Phosphamidon is widely used pesticide like other organophosphorus.

  • Phosphamidon is an organophosphate insecticide that was marketed under the trade name of "Dimecron "

  • Phosphamidon has been detected in the environment as the contaminants in the drinking water and pesticide residues in food stuffs because of their extensive uses.

  • The chemical names of Phosphamidon are 2-chloro-2-(diethyl-carbamoyl)-1-methyl-vinyl-dimethylphosphate; dimethyl (1-methyl-2-chloro-2-miethylcarbamoyl-vinyl) phosphate; dimethyl diethylamido-1-chlorocrotonyl (2) phosphate.

Uses

  • It was mostly used to combat mostly insects - aphids, stemborers, lygusbugs, leafhoppers, leaf miners, spruce budworm, beetles, thrips, codling moth, grasshoppers, mites, scale, bollworms, Mexican bean beetles, white flies.

  • And used on numerous plants including citrus and cotton crops, rice, and nuts and some other crops. 

Report

  • Phosphamidon is found to be toxic on male reproductive system if exposed chronically The reduction of weight of testes, decreased in diameter of seminiferous tubules, increased interstitial space, reduction in number of germ cells,sertoli cells and leydig cells,cytoplasmic
    vacuolization of germ cells ,tubular deformities in testes shows the cytotoxic effects of phosphamidon.

  • Under the conditions of this bioassay, technical- grade phosphamidon was not carcinogenic for mice. The data obtained in this bioassay with Osborne -Mendel rats are insufficient to allow the interpretation that technical-grade phosphamidon is carcinogenic in this species.

  • Pesticide exposure results in increased lipid peroxidation coupled with altered levels of oxygen free radical scavenging enzymes and glutathione redox system in male albino rats, thereby causing oxidative stress, which may profoundly affect the immune system 

  • Phosphamidon-induced oxidative stress may be the underlying mechanism of neurotoxicity and immunotoxicity and NAC administration may be of therapeutic use to combat phosphamidon toxicity.

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