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Phosphamidon is widely used pesticide like other organophosphorus.
was marketed under the trade name of "Dimecron "
Phosphamidon has been detected in the environment as the
contaminants in the drinking water and pesticide residues in food
stuffs because of their extensive uses.
The chemical names of Phosphamidon are
dimethyl (1-methyl-2-chloro-2-miethylcarbamoyl-vinyl) phosphate;
dimethyl diethylamido-1-chlorocrotonyl (2) phosphate.
It was mostly used to combat mostly insects - aphids,
stemborers, lygusbugs, leafhoppers, leaf miners, spruce budworm,
beetles, thrips, codling moth, grasshoppers, mites, scale,
bollworms, Mexican bean beetles, white flies.
on numerous plants including citrus and cotton crops, rice, and nuts
and some other crops.
Phosphamidon is found to be toxic on male reproductive system if
exposed chronically The reduction of weight of testes, decreased in
diameter of seminiferous tubules, increased interstitial space,
reduction in number of germ cells,sertoli cells and leydig
vacuolization of germ cells ,tubular deformities in testes shows the
cytotoxic effects of phosphamidon.
Under the conditions of this bioassay, technical- grade phosphamidon
was not carcinogenic for mice. The data obtained in this bioassay
with Osborne -Mendel rats are insufficient to allow the
interpretation that technical-grade phosphamidon is carcinogenic in
exposure results in increased lipid peroxidation coupled with
altered levels of oxygen free radical scavenging enzymes and
glutathione redox system in male albino rats, thereby causing
oxidative stress, which may profoundly affect the immune system
oxidative stress may be the underlying mechanism of neurotoxicity
and immunotoxicity and NAC administration may be of therapeutic use
to combat phosphamidon toxicity.
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