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Information @ Glance

  • Profenophos was first registered by the Agency in 1982 for use as an insecticide/miticide.
  • Profenophos is the ISO approved name for (RS)-O-4-bromo-2-chlorophenyl O-ethyl S-propyl phosphorothioate.
  • Profenophos is a broad-spectrum organophosphorus insecticide that is used to control insect pests in cotton.Its mode of action is by inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity.
  • Profenophos, a "restricted use" pesticide, is used to control tobacco budworm, cotton bollworm, armyworm, cotton aphid, whiteflies, spider mites, plant bugs, and fleahoppers.
  • An estimated 85% of all Profenophos is used for the control of lepidopteran species (the worm complex) at varying rates. About 30% of this use is aimed at controlling the worm complex at the current maximum label rate of 1 lb. ai/Acre.
  • Technical Profenophos is a pale yellow liquid with a boiling point of 100oC (1.8 Pa) and a density of 1.46 g/cm3 at 20oC. Pure Profenophos is an amber-colored oily liquid with a  boiling point of 110oC (0.13 Pa). Profenophos has limited solubility in water (20 ppm), but is completely soluble  in organic solvents (ethanol, acetone, toluene, n-octanol, and n-hexane) at 25oC.
  • Profenophos breaks down rapidly in aerobic and anaerobic conditions and dissipates in neutral to alkaline soils with a half-life of several days.
  • Profenophos is slowly absorbed and metabolized. Profenophos was the major residue when harvested several weeks after the last application, and then Profenophos underwent hydrolysis of phosphate ester to form CGA 55960 and its sugar conjugate.
  • The results indicate that Profenophos is not persistent in soil.Under sterile conditions, CGA 55960 was formed as the only degradate, reaching a maximum level of 93% of the applied dose by 360 days.
  • The Agency’s human health risk assessment for Profenophos indicates that there are no concerns for dietary risk from food and water.
  • The Agency estimates that on average approximately 775,000 pounds of Profenophos are applied to an estimated average of 5% of the approximately 13,818,000 acres of cotton grown in the US per year.
  • Profenophos is used in nearly every state where cotton is grown, approximately 80% of the  yearly use of Profenophos is in the mid-South states of Arkansas, Georgia, Texas, Louisiana, and Mississippi.
  • Profenophos is not persistent in soil, water or sediment (anaerobic breakdown is slower than aerobic). The mobility of Profenophos in soils is reduced because of its low solubility in water and its affinity for soil organic matter.
  • Profenophos was of low toxicity on exposure by inhalation, the LC50 being > 3.36 mg/L. Profenophos was moderately irritating to skin and mildly irritating to the eye and was shown to be a sensitizer under the conditions of the Magnusson & Kligman test and in the local lymph-node assay.

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