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- Profenophos was first
registered by the Agency in 1982 for use as an insecticide/miticide.
- Profenophos is the
ISO approved name for (RS)-O-4-bromo-2-chlorophenyl O-ethyl S-propyl
- Profenophos is a
broad-spectrum organophosphorus insecticide that is used to control
insect pests in cotton.Its mode of action is by inhibition of
- Profenophos, a
"restricted use" pesticide, is used to control tobacco budworm, cotton
bollworm, armyworm, cotton aphid, whiteflies, spider mites, plant bugs,
- An estimated 85% of
all Profenophos is used for the control of lepidopteran species (the
worm complex) at varying rates. About 30% of this use is aimed at
controlling the worm complex at the current maximum label rate of 1 lb.
- Technical Profenophos
is a pale yellow liquid with a boiling point of 100oC (1.8 Pa) and a
density of 1.46 g/cm3 at 20oC. Pure Profenophos is an amber-colored oily
liquid with a boiling point of 110oC (0.13 Pa). Profenophos has
limited solubility in water (20 ppm), but is completely soluble in
organic solvents (ethanol, acetone, toluene, n-octanol, and n-hexane) at
- Profenophos breaks
down rapidly in aerobic and anaerobic conditions and dissipates in
neutral to alkaline soils with a half-life of several days.
- Profenophos is slowly
absorbed and metabolized. Profenophos was the major residue when
harvested several weeks after the last application, and then Profenophos
underwent hydrolysis of phosphate ester to form CGA 55960 and its sugar
- The results indicate
that Profenophos is not persistent in soil.Under sterile conditions, CGA
55960 was formed as the only degradate, reaching a maximum level of 93%
of the applied dose by 360 days.
- The Agency’s human
health risk assessment for Profenophos indicates that there are no
concerns for dietary risk from food and water.
- The Agency estimates
that on average approximately 775,000 pounds of Profenophos are applied
to an estimated average of 5% of the approximately 13,818,000 acres of
cotton grown in the US per year.
- Profenophos is used
in nearly every state where cotton is grown, approximately 80% of the
yearly use of Profenophos is in the mid-South states of Arkansas,
Georgia, Texas, Louisiana, and Mississippi.
- Profenophos is not
persistent in soil, water or sediment (anaerobic breakdown is slower
than aerobic). The mobility of Profenophos in soils is reduced because
of its low solubility in water and its affinity for soil organic matter.
- Profenophos was of
low toxicity on exposure by inhalation, the LC50 being > 3.36 mg/L.
Profenophos was moderately irritating to skin and mildly irritating to
the eye and was shown to be a sensitizer under the conditions of the
Magnusson & Kligman test and in the local lymph-node assay.
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