- Photovoltaics (PV) is
a method of generating electrical power by converting solar
radiation into direct current electricity using semiconductors that
exhibit the photovoltaic effect.
- Photovoltaics offer
consumers the ability to generate electricity in a clean, quiet and
reliable way. Photovoltaic systems are comprised of photovoltaic
cells, devices that convert light energy directly into electricity.
- Photovoltaics are best
known as a method for generating electric power by using solar cells
to convert energy from the sun into a flow of electrons. The
photovoltaic effect refers to photons of light exciting electrons
into a higher state of energy, allowing them to act as charge
carriers for an electric current.
- The term photovoltaic
denotes the unbiased operating mode of a photodiode in which current
through the device is entirely due to the transduced light energy.
Virtually all photovoltaic devices are some type of photodiode.
- Solar cells produce
direct current electricity from sun light, which can be used to
power equipment or to recharge a battery. The first practical
application of photovoltaics was to power orbiting satellites and
other spacecraft, but today the majority of photovoltaic modules are
used for grid connected power generation. In this case an inverter
is required to convert the DC to AC.
- There is a smaller
market for off-grid power for remote dwellings, boats, recreational
vehicles, electric cars, roadside emergency telephones, remote
sensing, and cathodic protection of pipelines.
- Germany installed a
record 3.8 GW of solar PV in 2009; in contrast, the US installed
about 500 MW in 2009. The previous record, 2.6 GW, was set by Spain
in 2008. Germany was also the fastest growing major PV market in the
world from 2006 to 2007 industry observers speculate that Germany
could install more than 4.5 GW in 2010.
- In fact Germany
installed 7,25 GW in 2010. The German PV industry generates over
10,000 jobs in production, distribution and installation. By the end
of 2006, nearly 88% of all solar PV installations in the EU were in
grid-tied applications in Germany.
- Compared to fossil and
nuclear energy sources, very little research money has been invested
in the development of solar cells, so there is considerable room for
improvement. Nevertheless, experimental high efficiency solar cells
already have efficiencies of over 40% in case of concentrating
photovoltaic cells and efficiencies are rapidly rising while
mass-production costs are rapidly falling.
- Solar cells are
encapsulated in “PV modules” to obtain specific voltage and power ,
for mechanical strength, weather resistance, humidity insulation of
contacts , front plate: transparent (tempered glass, synthetic) ,
back plate: opaque (synthetic, metal) or transparent (glass).
- Solar photovoltaic
systems convert solar radiation into clean electricity using
PV-panels. The panels consist of semiconductor cells that absorb the
energy from the photons emitted by the sun and produce direct
current (DC) to the panel terminals.
- Solar energy resources
are dispersive and available everywhere, so solar energy
photovoltaic power generation system is particularly suitable for
use as an independent power supply. Solar photovoltaic system mainly
includes three parts: solar components; power electronic equipment
such as charge-discharge controller, inverter, test instrumentation
and computer control; battery or other energy storage and auxiliary
power generation equipment.
- The working principle
of photovoltaic power supply system is that the electricity produced
from the solar component will charge for the battery controlled by
the controller, directly to the load power supply in the context of
meeting the load demand under the sunlight. The battery supply power
for the DC load under the control of the controller if the sunlight
is lack or at night. The converter is need to translate AC into DC
for the photovoltaic system with AC load.
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