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  • Photovoltaics (PV) is a method of generating electrical power by converting solar radiation into direct current electricity using semiconductors that exhibit the photovoltaic effect.
  • Photovoltaics offer consumers the ability to generate electricity in a clean, quiet and reliable way. Photovoltaic systems are comprised of photovoltaic cells, devices that convert light energy directly into electricity.
  • Photovoltaics are best known as a method for generating electric power by using solar cells to convert energy from the sun into a flow of electrons. The photovoltaic effect refers to photons of light exciting electrons into a higher state of energy, allowing them to act as charge carriers for an electric current.
  • The term photovoltaic denotes the unbiased operating mode of a photodiode in which current through the device is entirely due to the transduced light energy. Virtually all photovoltaic devices are some type of photodiode.
  • Solar cells produce direct current electricity from sun light, which can be used to power equipment or to recharge a battery. The first practical application of photovoltaics was to power orbiting satellites and other spacecraft, but today the majority of photovoltaic modules are used for grid connected power generation. In this case an inverter is required to convert the DC to AC.
  • There is a smaller market for off-grid power for remote dwellings, boats, recreational vehicles, electric cars, roadside emergency telephones, remote sensing, and cathodic protection of pipelines.
  • Germany installed a record 3.8 GW of solar PV in 2009; in contrast, the US installed about 500 MW in 2009. The previous record, 2.6 GW, was set by Spain in 2008. Germany was also the fastest growing major PV market in the world from 2006 to 2007 industry observers speculate that Germany could install more than 4.5 GW in 2010.
  • In fact Germany installed 7,25 GW in 2010. The German PV industry generates over 10,000 jobs in production, distribution and installation. By the end of 2006, nearly 88% of all solar PV installations in the EU were in grid-tied applications in Germany.
  • Compared to fossil and nuclear energy sources, very little research money has been invested in the development of solar cells, so there is considerable room for improvement. Nevertheless, experimental high efficiency solar cells already have efficiencies of over 40% in case of concentrating photovoltaic cells and efficiencies are rapidly rising while mass-production costs are rapidly falling.
  • Solar cells are encapsulated in “PV modules” to obtain specific voltage and power , for mechanical strength, weather resistance, humidity insulation of contacts , front plate: transparent (tempered glass, synthetic) , back plate: opaque (synthetic, metal) or transparent (glass).
  • Solar photovoltaic systems convert solar radiation into clean electricity using PV-panels. The panels consist of semiconductor cells that absorb the energy from the photons emitted by the sun and produce direct current (DC) to the panel terminals.
  • Solar energy resources are dispersive and available everywhere, so solar energy photovoltaic power generation system is particularly suitable for use as an independent power supply. Solar photovoltaic system mainly includes three parts: solar components; power electronic equipment such as charge-discharge controller, inverter, test instrumentation and computer control; battery or other energy storage and auxiliary power generation equipment.
  • The working principle of photovoltaic power supply system is that the electricity produced from the solar component will charge for the battery controlled by the controller, directly to the load power supply in the context of meeting the load demand under the sunlight. The battery supply power for the DC load under the control of the controller if the sunlight is lack or at night. The converter is need to translate AC into DC for the photovoltaic system with AC load.

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