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  • A chemically synthesised chromosome has for the first time been transplanted into a cell to produce a synthetic bacterium.
  • A bacterium called Mycoplasma mycoides whose genome has a total of only 475 genes, the human genome is thought to contain as many as 25000 genes in which all 475 genes of the Mycoplasma mycoides genome, which had been sequenced previously by the group, were synthesised chemically in a test-tube, stitched together to form a complete genome and then transplanted into another closely related but distinct species of bacterium called Mycoplasma capricolum.
  • The creation of the synthetic cell is part of an effort to design a "minimal cell" containing only the most basic genome required for life.
  • Using a computer analogy, one can think of a cellís cytoplasm as the hardware and the genome as the operating system. A synthetic cell is created by synthesizing a genome and installing it into a recipient cytoplasm.
  • An experiment was developed to transplant an artificially created genome of the bacteria Mycoplasma mycoides to a similar bacteria Mycoplasma capricolum.
  • It is noticeable that, in the biological world, quantization is introduced because all organisms are built from cells and all cells originate from preexisting cells. Many recent experimental and theoretical efforts have been made to determine the minimal size of a synthetic DNA genome
    for self-reproduction.
  • Synthetic biology is revolutionizing how we conceptualize and approach the engineering of biological systems.
  • Biology, an emerging engineering discipline to program cell behaviors as easily as we program computers. Synthetic biology will improve our quantitative understanding of natural biological processes and will also have biotechnology applications in areas such as biosensing, synthesis of pharmaceutical products, molecular fabrication of biomaterials and nanostructures, and tissue engineering.

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