- A chemically
synthesised chromosome has for the first time been transplanted into
a cell to produce a synthetic bacterium.
- A bacterium
called Mycoplasma mycoides whose genome has a total of only 475
genes, the human genome is thought to contain as many as 25000 genes
in which all 475 genes of the Mycoplasma mycoides genome, which had
been sequenced previously by the group, were synthesised chemically
in a test-tube, stitched together to form a complete genome and then
transplanted into another closely related but distinct species of
bacterium called Mycoplasma capricolum.
- The creation of
the synthetic cell is part of an effort to design a "minimal cell"
containing only the most basic genome required for life.
- Using a computer
analogy, one can think of a cellís cytoplasm as the hardware and the
genome as the operating system. A synthetic cell is created by
synthesizing a genome and installing it into a recipient cytoplasm.
- An experiment was
developed to transplant an artificially created genome of the
bacteria Mycoplasma mycoides to a similar bacteria Mycoplasma
- It is noticeable
that, in the biological world, quantization is introduced because
all organisms are built from cells and all cells originate from
preexisting cells. Many recent experimental and theoretical efforts
have been made to determine the minimal size of a synthetic DNA
- Synthetic biology
is revolutionizing how we conceptualize and approach the engineering
of biological systems.
- Biology, an
emerging engineering discipline to program cell behaviors as easily
as we program computers. Synthetic biology will improve our
quantitative understanding of natural biological processes and will
also have biotechnology applications in areas such as biosensing,
synthesis of pharmaceutical products, molecular fabrication of
biomaterials and nanostructures, and tissue engineering.
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