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Information @ a Glance

  • Tanning is the process of making leather, which does not easily decompose, from the skins of animals, which do.
  • The materials which can tan leather are known as tannins. These can be produced naturally or synthetically.
  • At present tanning agents employed in leather industry are based mainly on chromium - containing tanning agents, which are much better than
    other inorganic tanning agents, synthetic tanning agents and vegetable tanning agents in terms of the comprehensive performance of the leather
    tanned by them.
  • The tannery operation consists of converting the raw hide or skin, a highly putrescible material, into leather, a stable material, which can be used in
    the manufacture of a wide range of products.
  • The process of converting the putrescible hides and skins into non-putrescible leather is called Tanning.
  • The leather which is first tanned with white tanning agents i.e. alum, zirconium, glutaraldehyde tanning agent in replace of chrome tanning agents
    and then retanned with vegetable tanning materials i.e. mimosa, quebracho etc., syntans, glutaraldehyde tanning materials etc. for making shoe upper leather is known as chrome free vegetable tanned shoe upper leather.
  • Vegetable tannaged leather has excellent fullness, moldering properties, wear resistance, air permeability and solidness; hence, it is of great significance to reduce chrome pollution in leather making process.
  • Before tanning the main important operations for leather manufacturing are done in beam house. Beam house operations consist of Soaking, Liming, Deliming, Bating, Pickling, Depickling and Degreasing.
  • The production of leather depends on the generation of complexes between the tanning  agent and the skin collagen.
  • Chromium metal is widely used as a tanning agent worldwide. The process called chrome-tanning is accomplished in three steps: Pickling, Tanning and Basification.
  • Chrome tanned leather, being the need of people all over the world, has the edge that its manufacture cannot be stopped. This has given some economic advantage to some developing countries including Pakistan to manufacture leather and export it to the developed countries.

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