Wind turbine blades (WTB)
Technology, Design, Product, Process, Maintenance, Turnkey,
Manufacturers, Research, Project, Reports, Study
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- Wind turbine blades
are a key component of a wind turbine. Wind turbines are machines that
turn wind energy into mechanical energy. The mechanical energy is then
converted to electricity. Large utility-scale wind turbines use rotating
wind turbine blades to generate that power.
- Utility-scale wind
turbines have over 8,000 parts. The turbines rotate around either a
horizontal axis or a vertical axis. Horizontal-axis wind turbines (HAWT)
are more common than vertical-axis wind turbines (VAWT). An HAWT can be
up to 50 percent more efficient than a VAWT, because of design and
- The HAWT evolved from
the European four-bladed wood and fabric windmills. Modern large wind
turbines use three blades because, aerodynamically, an odd number of
blades is more efficient. Each wind turbine blade is approximately 65 to
130 feet (20 to 40 m) long.
- Over the last 20
years, we have seen the standard blade size grow from 7.5m to well over
60m. In the future these tools that gather energy from the wind will
only be limited in size and performance by materials and our innovation.
- The blades are
produced from strong laminated materials that have a high
strength-to-weight ratio. Balsa, wood, fiberglass and carbon fiber can
all be molded into airfoils. The wind turbine blades are painted light
gray to blend in with clouds.
- Adjusting the blade
position provides greater control, allowing the wind turbine blades to
reap the maximum amount of wind energy. The blades are always
perpendicular to the wind, so they receive power throughout the entire
rotation. A HAWT rotor component, including the wind turbine blades,
makes up approximately 20% of the cost of manufacturing a utility-scale
- Wind turbine blade
static testing is employed to confirm required load profiles and
validate blade designs, commonly subjecting blades to 150% of their
rated loads. Accurately testing blades to failure requires high-force,
high-precision and impact-worthy test equipment. It must be demonstrated
that the blade can withstand both the ultimate loads and the fatigue
loads to which the blade is expected to be subjected during its designed
service life. In other words, the blade should not fail before the end
of its expected service life.
- MTS wind turbine
blade fatigue test solutions apply automated cyclic loading to wind
turbine blades at resonant frequency to excite the blade and achieve the
desired strain rate. This offers a productive and accurate means for
meeting the fatigue testing demands of International Electrotechnical
Commission (IEC) Technical Specification 61400-23.
- Most wind turbine
blades are fabricated using reinforced fiberglass composite materials
with epoxy or vinyl ester matrices. Single or double shear webs are
usually combined with planks of unidirectional laminates to form
integral I-5 beam or box beam structures that carry the loads along the
- As demand for
renewable energy increases, wind turbine blades are increasing in size,
leading to longer blades that can achieve larger swept areas. However,
gravity-induced bending loads on blades create dramatic increases in
dynamic stress, heightening market demand for a material that reduces
blade mass while retaining strength. The value of the global composite
blade market is estimated at €4 billion in 2011, of which around €1.5
billion was raw materials.
- Since oil leakage can
penetrate into the blade laminate layers and cause the blade to come
apart over time, leaks inside blades need to be cleaned up and
controlled. Oil leaks on the outside of blades can attract dirt and bug
build up causing reduced performance. Visible blade cracks are the
easiest way to see that a blade has problems. All cracks should be
reported to ensure that the crack can be repaired before it becomes a
bigger problem. As cracks tend to propagate, the repairs only get more
expensive with time. Cracks can allow water to enter the blade, which
can cause damage in freeze-thaw climates.
- As lightning strikes
can cause various amounts of damage to wind turbines, this is a focal
point for engineers working to improve blade survivability. Typical
methods of controlling lightning consist of bare metal pucks near the
tips of the blades. As ice build up on blades can be very dangerous, it
is best practice to stay clear of the machine until all the ice is gone.
Ice reduces the efficiency of the airfoil, and can unbalance the rotor.
- Blades must be
balanced so they do not cause excessive loads on the rest of the turbine
or tower. Just like the wheels on a car, rotating blades cause
repetitive swinging loads if they are not balanced.
- Some finish work can
cause you to lose energy production, such as brush marks in the gel coat
on the leading edges of blades. Unless the aerodynamic engineers built
these brush marks into the airfoil they shouldn't be there. You may want
to take time to sand them out of your new blades. It is the same as
having clean blades versus dirty blades.
Entrepreneur who want the information such as
Technology, Design, Product, Process, Maintenance, Turnkey, Manufacturers,
Research, Project, Reports, Study " about Wind
turbine blades can email
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