Bromelain        

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Information @ a glance
General
  • Bromelain is a mixture of sulfur-containing protein-digesting enzymes—called proteolytic enzymes or proteases—and several other substances in smaller quantities. The two main enzymes are: stem bromelain, fruit bromelain .
  • Bromelain is present in all parts of the pineapple plant (Ananas comosus) but the stem is the most common commercial source, presumably because it is readily available after the fruit has been harvested

Extraction

  • Whole pineapples were separated into three parts (fruit/core, peel and proliferating top), diced, and pressed to obtain juices which were further homogenized separately at 5, 10, 15 or 20 MPa for 3 minutes. Bromelain was extracted from the homogenized juices using ultrafiltration, ammonium sulfate precipitation, centrifugation, dialysis and freeze-drying processes. Yield and activity of extracted bromelain were determined.
  • Extraction Procedure: Bromelain sample preparation, Micellar solution, Backward extraction solution,  Pulsed caps micro-column, and the extraction process are  Batch extraction,  Continuous extraction,  Backward Extraction.

Technology

  • Bromelain is a standardized complex of enzymes (cysteine proteases) found in the stem of pineapple (Ananas comosus). Proteases are protein-digesting enzymes. Bromelain has been shown to have anti-inflammatory effects when taken orally and has been used in the treatment of a number of inflammatory conditions. People suffering from rheumatoid arthritis who received bromelain experienced a reduction in joint swelling and pain and increased joint mobility.

  • Over the last few decades, intense research in the area of enzyme technology has provided many approaches that facilitate their practical applications. Among them, the newer technological developments in the field of immobilized biocatalysts can offer the possibility of a wider and more economical exploitation of biocatalysts in industry, waste treatment, medicine, and in the development of bioprocess monitoring devices like the biosensor.

Application

  • Bromelain has been found to reduce the incidence of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli diarrhea in piglets. This effect is thought to be due to inactivation of enterotoxigenic E. coli receptors in the small intestine via proteolytic cleavage of the glycoprotein receptor.
  • Researchers believed that these enzymes provided the key health benefits found in bromelain, a popular dietary supplement containing these pineapple extracts. In addition, researchers believed that these benefits were primarily limited to help with digestion in the intestinal tract. However, further studies have shown that bromelain has a wide variety of health benefits, and that many of these benefits may not be related to the different enzymes found in this extract.
  • The protein-digesting enzymes found in bromelain help promote and maintain proper digestion and may relieve symptoms of stomach upset or heartburn, particularly when used in conjunction with other enzymes such as amylase (which digests starch) and lipase (which digests fat). Similarly, an animal study suggests that the antibacterial effects of bromelain may help to control diarrhea caused by bacteria.

Market

  • Significant market demand with people's increasing understanding of papain, its application has gone wider and wider. Presently, Bromelain and papain has been widely used in food processing industry, textile industry, leather industry, forage industry, cosmetic industry and medical application etc. In response to the market demands, food, agent, cosmetic, medical, coarse and refined papain have been produced to meet different market needs.
  • The BioIndustrial sector, which predominantly comprises the enzymes companies, is estimated to be Rs 320 crore in 2004-05. The total industry registered 34.45 percent growth in 2004-05. There are about 17-20 players in India and the market leader in the segment during 2004-05 was Biocon, with total sales of Rs 89.68 crore. Its enzymes business registered 34.82 percent growth.

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