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  • Butadiene is a colourless gas with a boiling point of 4.4 C at 1 atmosphere and a density of 0.611g/ml at 20 C. It is a flammable gas and has a mildly aromatic odour. Its vapour pressure is 2100 mmHg at 25 C and the explosive limits are 211.5%. Butadiene is slightly soluble in water (735 mg/litre) and is soluble in a number of organic solvents including ethanol, diethyl ether, acetone, benzene, and polar and nonpolar organic solvents.
  • Butadiene is not known to occur as a natural product. Sources of butadiene include cigarette smoke,
    motor vehicle exhaust, wood smoke and emissions from butadiene production, storage, transport
    and end-use.


  • Butadiene is produced commercially by three processes:  Steam Cracking of Paraffinic Hydrocarbons: In this process, butadiene is a coproduct in the manufacture of ethylene (the ethylene co-product process).,   Catalytic Dehydrogenation of n-Butane and n-Butene (the Houdry process), Oxidative Dehydrogenation of n-Butene (the Oxo-D or O-X-D process). Each of these processes produces a stream commonly referred to as crude butadiene that is rich in 1,3-butadiene.


  • Butadiene is used in the production of resins and plastics including butadiene rubber, styrene rubber, adiponitrile, polychloroprene, nitrile rubber, styrene butadiene latex and acrylonitrile-butadienestyrene. Synthetic rubber made from butadiene is used primarily in the production of car tyres.
  • 1,3-Butadiene is used as a monomer in the production of rubber and plastics, with approximately 75% going into the production of synthetic rubbers.


  • Butadiene is a chemical intermediate used as a polymer component for the production of synthetic rubber such as styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) and polybutadiene rubber (PBR), which in total consume more than 54% of the global butadiene production.
  • Global demand of butadiene amounted to about 10 million tons in 2003, with growth rates similar to worldwide GDP. It is expected that Asia will be the main driver for demand of butadiene and ABS resin production rates will correspondingly grow at high rates.
  • Elastomers will continue to be the largest consumer of butadiene and should maintain their position of 61 percent of total consumption. However, they are mature products that are heavily reliant on the automotive industry

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