- Sodium hydroxide (NaOH),
also known as lye, caustic soda and sodium hydrate, is a caustic
metallic base. Caustic soda forms a strong alkaline solution when
dissolved in a solvent such as water. It is used in many industries,
mostly as a strong chemical base in the manufacture of pulp and paper,
textiles, drinking water, soaps and detergents and as a drain cleaner.
- Worldwide production
in 1998 was around 45 million tonnes. Sodium hydroxide is the most used
base in chemical laboratories. Pure sodium hydroxide is a white solid;
available in pellets, flakes, granules and as a 50% saturated solution.
It is deliquescent and readily absorbs carbon dioxide from the air, so
it should be stored in an airtight container. It is very soluble in
water with liberation of heat.
- Modern methods of
sodium hydroxide manufacture use electrolysis, the process of converting
ions into elements by means of an electric current. The process can
still be called an oxidation, since the negative charge on the chlorine
ion is removed by causing it to come into contact with the anode of the
- Liquid caustic soda
is manufactured by electrolysis of purified and concentrated brine using
mercury, diaphragm or membrane cell technology. Liquid caustic soda 50 %
is evaporated to molten caustic soda. Solid caustic soda is manufactured
by evaporation of water from liquid caustic soda and then solidification
into a required shape.
- In the chlor-alkali
electrolysis process , an aqueous solution of sodium chloride is
decomposed electrolytically by direct current, producing chlorine,
hydrogen, and sodium hydroxide solution. Three commercial processes are
used in the industry for producing chlorine, caustic soda, and hydrogen:
the mercury cell process, the diaphragm cell process, and the membrane
- In each of the three
basic electrolytic processes for chlorine, the nature of the cathode
reaction and the means of keeping the chlorine produced at the anode
separate from the hydrogen and caustic soda produced at the cathode
vary. Pollution prevention technologies that can be implemented in the
bleaching areas-of the mill.
- The world caustic
soda market will be worth almost US$6 billion, according to a major new
study from analysts report on Caustic Soda says consumption will
increase to 45 million tonnes. This rise in consumption is largely
driven by the increasing demand from chemical producers. The global
demand for caustic soda grows by an average of 3% a year, for chlorine –
by an average of 2.2% a year. In India, caustic soda is the principal
product of the industry.
- An Institute (API)
reports that demand for caustic in pulp bleaching is expected to decline
by 7 percent versus declines in the demand for chlorine of roughly
35 percent . This forecasted imbalance within the pulp and paper
industry may be slightly offset by increases in chlorine demand from
other market segments.
Entrepreneur who wants the
informations on "General Information, Production Process, Technology,
Applications, Plant, Raw Material Suppliers, Machinery, Rules & Regulations,
Market, Reports, Company Profiles, Consultants, Guides" can
Email as to