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Information @ a Glance

General
  • Peel, also known as rind or skin, is the outer protective layer of a fruit or vegetable. Botanically, it is referred to as the exocarp, but this term also includes the hard cases of nuts, which are not considered to be peels.
  • Depending on the thickness and taste, fruit peel is sometimes eaten as part of the fruit, such as with apples. In some cases the peel is unpleasant or inedible, in which case it is removed and discarded, such as with bananas or grapefruits.

Process

  • The peel of the citrus fruit has numerous glands that contain oil that is typically recovered as a major by-product. Each type of citrus fruit has its own characteristic set of compounds that comprise the oil and that are responsible for its flavor and aroma.
  • In the Peel Drying process just described citrus peel, which starts at about 82% moisture, is dried down to 10 to 12% moisture. (This means that for every 100 pounds peel entering the peel bin, about 20 pounds of finished animal feed will result). As a final step the dried peel is pelletized in order to reduce its bulk. This is done in order to minimize transportation and storage costs.
  • With the increase in production of processed fruit products, the amount of fruit wastes generated is increasing enormously. Large amount of these wastes poses the problem of disposal without causing environmental pollution. These wastes can be effectively disposed by manufacturing useful byproducts from them.

Applications

  • Fruit peels or rind are usually treated as a throwaway but sometimes they could be use as raw material for some food products. One such example is the watermelon ring. The peels of the different fruits had similar composition but were considerable lower in DM, crude protein and ash content compared with the pawpaw leaves. Growth performance was adequate on all the fruit peels but was best with ripe pawpaw peel, which gave results comparable to the control diet of pawpaw leaves.
  • Fresh weight of the peels from each of thelemon (Citrus limonum), lime (Citrus quarantifolia), sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) citrus fruits was taken with Knettler Teledo balance and immediately sun dried until they were crispy. Corresponding dry weights of citrus fruits were taken. Thereafter, the peels were ground using a laboratory hammer milling machine with screening Sieve containing pores I mm in size to obtain Citrus Fruit Peel Meal
  • Vegetable and fruit peels were mainly used as addition to animal feed, in preparation of vermi- compost while few respondents use selected fruit peels as of oranges, lemon and pomegranate for preparing face pack and medicines.

Technology

  • Gas chromatography or “GC” technique is also sometimes referred to as gas-liquid chromatography (GLC), or vapor-phase chromatography (VPC). In GC, a mixture is vaporized and moved through a long thin tube with a carrier gas. In this experiment we will utilize GC to separate, identify, and quantify a component found in several citrus fruit peels.
  • The technologies recommended for waste management for rural areas are vermi-composting, bio-gas, mushroom cultivation and durrie making. Waste generated ‘daily’ included vegetable peels, animal dung and urine, ‘frequently’ polythene bags, fruit peels, tins, bottles, old clothes, dried twigs and weeds, ‘occasionally’ but in larger quantity was agri-waste in the form of stalk and straw.

Market

  • The growth of the citrus juice industry in Florida over the past 50 years has driven the large-scale processing of citrus that is common today. The average annual production of Florida oranges has been about 240 million boxes over the past few years, with 1 box equaling 90 pounds of fruit. Pectin has been extracted from the peels of citrus where the United States imported more than 5,300 tons of pectin worth more than $56 million.
  • The latent demand for glace, candied, and crystallized fruits, fruit peels, nuts, and other vegetable substances is not actual or historic sales. Nor is latent demand future sales. In fact, latent demand can be lower either lower or higher than actual sales if a market is inefficient (i.e., not representative of relatively competitive levels).

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