- Peel, also known as
rind or skin, is the outer protective layer of a fruit or vegetable.
Botanically, it is referred to as the exocarp, but this term also
includes the hard cases of nuts, which are not considered to be peels.
- Depending on the
thickness and taste, fruit peel is sometimes eaten as part of the fruit,
such as with apples. In some cases the peel is unpleasant or inedible,
in which case it is removed and discarded, such as with bananas or
- The peel of the
citrus fruit has numerous glands that contain oil that is typically
recovered as a major by-product. Each type of citrus fruit has its own
characteristic set of compounds that comprise the oil and that are
responsible for its flavor and aroma.
- In the Peel Drying
process just described citrus peel, which starts at about 82% moisture,
is dried down to 10 to 12% moisture. (This means that for every 100
pounds peel entering the peel bin, about 20 pounds of finished animal
feed will result). As a final step the dried peel is pelletized in order
to reduce its bulk. This is done in order to minimize transportation and
- With the increase in
production of processed fruit products, the amount of fruit wastes
generated is increasing enormously. Large amount of these wastes poses
the problem of disposal without causing environmental pollution. These
wastes can be effectively disposed by manufacturing useful byproducts
- Fruit peels or rind
are usually treated as a throwaway but sometimes they could be use as
raw material for some food products. One such example is the watermelon
ring. The peels of the different fruits had similar composition but were
considerable lower in DM, crude protein and ash content compared with
the pawpaw leaves. Growth performance was adequate on all the fruit
peels but was best with ripe pawpaw peel, which gave results comparable
to the control diet of pawpaw leaves.
- Fresh weight of the
peels from each of thelemon (Citrus limonum), lime (Citrus quarantifolia),
sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) citrus fruits was taken with Knettler
Teledo balance and immediately sun dried until they were crispy.
Corresponding dry weights of citrus fruits were taken. Thereafter, the
peels were ground using a laboratory hammer milling machine with
screening Sieve containing pores I mm in size to obtain Citrus Fruit
- Vegetable and fruit
peels were mainly used as addition to animal feed, in preparation of
vermi- compost while few respondents use selected fruit peels as of
oranges, lemon and pomegranate for preparing face pack and medicines.
- Gas chromatography or
“GC” technique is also sometimes referred to as gas-liquid
chromatography (GLC), or vapor-phase chromatography (VPC). In GC, a
mixture is vaporized and moved through a long thin tube with a carrier
gas. In this experiment we will utilize GC to separate, identify, and
quantify a component found in several citrus fruit peels.
- The technologies
recommended for waste management for rural areas are vermi-composting,
bio-gas, mushroom cultivation and durrie making. Waste generated ‘daily’
included vegetable peels, animal dung and urine, ‘frequently’ polythene
bags, fruit peels, tins, bottles, old clothes, dried twigs and weeds,
‘occasionally’ but in larger quantity was agri-waste in the form of
stalk and straw.
- The growth of the
citrus juice industry in Florida over the past 50 years has driven the
large-scale processing of citrus that is common today. The average
annual production of Florida oranges has been about 240 million boxes
over the past few years, with 1 box equaling 90 pounds of fruit. Pectin
has been extracted from the peels of citrus where the United States
imported more than 5,300 tons of pectin worth more than $56 million.
- The latent demand for
glace, candied, and crystallized fruits, fruit peels, nuts, and other
vegetable substances is not actual or historic sales. Nor is latent
demand future sales. In fact, latent demand can be lower either lower or
higher than actual sales if a market is inefficient (i.e., not
representative of relatively competitive levels).
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