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General
  • Glucose, a monosaccharide or simple sugar, is an important carbohydrate in biology. The living cell uses it as a source of energy and metabolic intermediate. Glucose is one of the main products of photosynthesis and starts cellular respiration in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
  • Glucose is also called blood sugar as it circulates in the blood at a concentration of 65-110 mg/ml of blood.
  • Glucose is commonly available in the form of a white substance or as a solid crystal. It can also be commonly found as an aqueous solution.

Extraction

  • Glucose is initially synthesized by chlorophyll in plants using carbon dioxide from the air and sunlight as an energy source. Glucose is further converted to starch for storage.
  • Glucose is produced commercially via the enzymatic hydrolysis of starch. In animals and fungi, glucose is the result of the breakdown of glycogen, a process known as glycogenolysis. In plants the breakdown substrate is starch. In animals, glucose is synthesized in the liver and kidneys from non-carbohydrate intermediates, such as pyruvate and glycerol, by a process known as gluconeogenesis.
  • Two different pathways are involved in the metabolism of glucose: one anaerobic and one aerobic. The anaerobic process occurs in the cytoplasm and is only moderately efficient. The aerobic cycle takes place in the mitochondria and is results in the greatest release of energy.

Production

  • Glucose Production was 100% from gluconeogenesis in the patients, but only 58% in the controls (p=0.003). Consequently, glycogenolysis made no contribution to glucose production in the patients
  • Glucose production by liver is a major physiological function, which is required to prevent development of hypoglycemia in the postprandial and fasted states. The enzymatic mechanisms by which glucose is produced in liver through glycogenolysis or gluconeogenesis

Application

  • Glucose is a ubiquitous fuel in biology. It is used as an energy source in most organisms, from bacteria to humans.
  • Glucose is used as an energy source in cells is via aerobic or anaerobic respiration.
  • Glucose is used as a precursor for the synthesis of several important substances such as starch solution starch, cellulose, and glycogen  are common glucose polymers
  • Glucose is an important enzyme used in biochemical and medical studies and in several analytical methods that have industrial and commercial application.

Market

  • We expect the number of people in the US using real-time, continuous glucose monitors  to increase from 7K exiting 2006 to 160K in 2009, and US system and disposables revenues associated with these real-time monitors to increase from USD7m in 2006 to USD257m in 2009.

  • An increasingly savvy consumer base coupled with the growing incidence of diabetes are spurring the growth of the glucose self-monitoring devices markets. With healthcare specialists and manufacturers investing resources towards creating awareness, there has been an increase in the demand for sophisticated, convenient and cost effective home glucose monitoring devices. Strategic Analysis of World Diabetes Glucose Monitoring Devices Markets, reveals that revenues in this industry totaled $5.04 billion in 2003 and is projected to reach $12.4 billion by 2010.

Report

  • It is reported that maintaining blood glucose at 80 to 110 mg/dl  in a surgical intensive care unit (ICU) with an intravenous (IV) insulin infusion could significantly reduce the development of bacteremia by 46% and mortality by 52% in those patients who stayed in the ICU for longer than 5 days.
  • A modified form of glucose that had been synthesized with a radioactive marker was used to measure the rate of glucose uptake into the tissue, and various drugs and hormones were added to study their effects. The number of -type adrenaline receptors was identified, also through the use of radio-labelled

  • An efficient uptake system is necessary to maintain blood glucose concentrations within a narrow range; otherwise the brain becomes starved or overloaded, potentially leading to unconsciousness.

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