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- Glucose, a
monosaccharide or simple sugar, is an
carbohydrate in biology.
cell uses it as a source of energy and metabolic intermediate. Glucose
is one of the main products of
photosynthesis and starts
cellular respiration in both
- Glucose is also called blood sugar as it circulates in the blood at a
concentration of 65-110 mg/ml of blood.
- Glucose is commonly available in the form of a white substance or as a
solid crystal. It can also be commonly found as an
- Glucose is initially synthesized by chlorophyll in plants using carbon
dioxide from the air and sunlight as an energy source. Glucose is further
converted to starch for storage.
Glucose is produced commercially via the enzymatic
hydrolysis of starch. In animals and fungi, glucose is the result of the breakdown of glycogen,
a process known as
glycogenolysis. In plants the breakdown substrate is starch. In animals, glucose is synthesized in the liver and kidneys
from non-carbohydrate intermediates, such as
pyruvate and glycerol,
by a process known as
- Two different
pathways are involved in the metabolism of glucose: one anaerobic and
one aerobic. The anaerobic process occurs in the cytoplasm and is only
moderately efficient. The aerobic cycle takes place in the mitochondria
and is results in the greatest release of energy.
- Glucose Production was
100% from gluconeogenesis in the patients, but only 58% in the controls
(p=0.003). Consequently, glycogenolysis made no contribution to glucose
production in the patients
Glucose production by liver is a major physiological
function, which is required to prevent development of hypoglycemia in the
postprandial and fasted states. The enzymatic mechanisms by which glucose
is produced in liver through glycogenolysis or gluconeogenesis
- Glucose is a ubiquitous fuel in biology.
It is used as an energy source in most organisms, from bacteria to
- Glucose is used as an
energy source in cells is via aerobic or anaerobic respiration.
- Glucose is used as a precursor for the synthesis of several important
substances such as starch solution starch, cellulose,
glycogen are common glucose polymers
Glucose is an important enzyme used in biochemical and
medical studies and in several analytical methods that have industrial
and commercial application.
We expect the number of people in
the US using real-time, continuous glucose monitors to increase
from 7K exiting 2006 to 160K in 2009, and US system and disposables
revenues associated with these real-time monitors to increase from USD7m
in 2006 to USD257m in 2009.
- An increasingly savvy
consumer base coupled with the growing incidence of diabetes are
spurring the growth of the glucose self-monitoring devices markets. With
healthcare specialists and manufacturers investing resources towards
creating awareness, there has been an increase in the demand for
sophisticated, convenient and cost effective home glucose monitoring
devices. Strategic Analysis of World Diabetes Glucose Monitoring Devices
Markets, reveals that revenues in this industry totaled $5.04 billion in
2003 and is projected to reach $12.4 billion by 2010.
It is reported that maintaining blood glucose at 80 to 110
mg/dl in a surgical intensive care unit (ICU) with an intravenous
(IV) insulin infusion could significantly reduce the development of bacteremia by 46% and mortality by 52% in those patients who stayed in the
ICU for longer than 5 days.
modified form of glucose that had been synthesized with a radioactive
marker was used to measure the rate of glucose uptake into the tissue, and
various drugs and hormones were added to study their effects. The number
of ß-type adrenaline receptors was identified, also through the use of
efficient uptake system is necessary to maintain blood glucose
concentrations within a narrow range; otherwise the brain becomes starved
or overloaded, potentially leading to unconsciousness.
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