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Information @ a Glance

 General
  • A light-emitting diode (LED) is a semiconductor diode that emits incoherent narrow-spectrum light when electrically biased in the forward direction of the p-n junction. This effect is a form of electroluminescence.
  • An LED is usually a small area source, often with extra optics added to the chip that shapes its radiation pattern. The color of the emitted light depends on the composition and condition of the semi conducting material used, and can be infrared, visible, or near-ultraviolet.
  • LED lamps (also called LED bars or Illuminators) come in different shapes, among them the light bulb shape with a large  Edison screw and MR16 shape with a bi-pin base. Other models might have a small Edison fitting, (Bipin cap) or  (bayonet socket). This includes low voltage  varieties and replacements for regular AC mains (120-240VAC) lighting. Currently the latter are less widely available but this is changing rapidly.

Process

  • First, a semiconductor wafer is made. The crystalline semiconductor is grown in a high temperature, high pressure chamber. Gallium, arsenic, and/or phosphor are purified and mixed together in the chamber. The heat and pressure liquify and press the components together so that they are forced into a solution.
  •  To keep them from escaping into the pressurized gas in the chamber, they are often covered with a layer of liquid boron oxide, which seals them off so that they must "stick together." This is known as liquid encapsulation, or the Czochralski crystal growth method. After the elements are mixed in a uniform solution, a rod is dipped into the solution and pulled out slowly.
  • 2 The boule is then sliced into very thin wafers of semiconductor, approximately 10 mils thick, or about as thick as a garbage bag. The wafers are polished until the surfaces are very smooth, so that they will readily accept more layers of semiconductor on their surface. The principle is similar to sanding a table before painting it. Each wafer should be a single crystal of material of uniform composition.

Technology

  • Allied Vision Technologies’ booth at VISION 2007 can experience the future of digital machine vision with the premiere of a brand new AVT camera family as well as fun demos of new vision applications.

  • Organic Light Emitting Diode technology and it promises to revolutionize almost everything that uses displays from cell phones, PDAs and keyboards, to computer monitors and HDTVs.

  • Breakthroughs in this field have made available high intensity LEDs in Red, Green, Blue, and Amber. These LEDs have made it possible to produce displays bright enough for outdoor use with viewing angles that are equal to or better than other technologies currently available.

Market

  • Beyond 2005, the LED market will expand at single-digit rates for a few years, predicts, while new applications for ultra-high brightness (UHB) LEDs is partially offset by reduced demand for high-brightness (HB) LEDs, and increased competition with more suppliers for the HB market

  • The market for displays has increased steadily during the Information Age. Its past growth was closely linked to the personal-computer market, but now many other types of electronic gadgets are requiring more sophisticated display systems. As the pundits accurately predicted, PCs are no longer the exclusive tools of scientists and engineers, and have taken their place among other common household appliances. Some analysts forecast that PC sales may not continue to grow at the current rate

  • Light-emitting diode (LED) chip makers hope to make big inroads within the next decade into the $12 billion conventional lighting market, now served by incandescent and fluorescent bulbs. But in the meantime, they are doing very well supplying lights for cell phones, autos and traffic signals.

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