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Information @ a Glance

  • Nalidixic acid is the basis for quinolone antibiotics.
  • Nalidixic acid occurs as white to light yellow crystals or crystalline powder and it is odorless.
  • Nalidixic acid is sparingly soluble in chloroform and in N,N-dimethyl formamide, very slightly soluble in ethanol and in diethyl ether and practically insoluble in water.
  • Nalidixic acid, which was introduced into clinical use in 1967, was the first member of the quinolone group of antimicrobials. It is a specific inhibitor of bacterial DNA gyrase.
  • Nalidixic acid is bactericidal against Enterobacteriaceae, including many strains of Shigella spp.
  • Nalidixic acid has been used to interrupt DNA synthesis in exponentially growing cultures of E. coli.
  • The antibiotic, nalidixic acid (NAL), is a relatively specific inhibitor of DNA synthesis in Bacillus subtilis, leading to "unbalanced growth" in which cells continue to elongate and to synthesize RNA and protein.
  • The kinetics of loss of the chloroplast-associated DNA and the sensitivity of chloroplast replication to ultraviolet light was followed during treatment with nalidixic acid.
  • Nalidixic acid is effective against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. In lower concentrations, it acts in a bacteriostatic manner; that is, it inhibits growth and reproduction. In higher concentrations, it is bactericidal, meaning that it kills bacteria instead of merely inhibiting their growth.
  • Nalidixic acid rapidly and specifically inhibits DNA synthesis in E. coli. Upon removal of the acid, DNA synthesis resumes rapidly and proceeds at a higher-than-normal rate.
  • Nalidixic and oxolinic acids inhibit DNA gyrase activity and induce formation of a relaxation complex analogue.
  • Nalidixic acid is especially used in treating urinary tract infections, caused, for example, by Escherichia coli, Proteus, Shigella, Enterobacter, and Klebsiella.
  • Nalidixic acid is also a tool in studies as a regulation of bacterial division and it is selectively and reversibly blocks DNA replication in susceptible bacteria.
  • Nalidixic acid and related antibiotics inhibit a subunit of DNA gyrase and induce formation of relaxation complex analogue.
  • The effect of nalidixic acid on pulse-labeled protein patterns was analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide slab gel electrophoresis.
  • Nalidixic acid also inhibits the nicking dosing activity on the subunit of DNA gyrase that release the positive binding stress on on the supercoiled DNA.
  • Nalidixic acid an antibacterial drug with a narrow spectrum is used mainly for urinary and intestinal infections.
  • Nalidixic acid resistance has been used as a selective marker for studies of pathogen-inoculated
    fruits and vegetables.
  • In past years, the use of the nalidixic acid screening test was recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute for the detection of invasive Salmonella isolates.
  • Nalidixic acid was the earliest introduced in India about two decades back followed by Norfloxacin in 1988 and later Ciprofloxacin was introduced for clinical use.

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