Paraffin, the name given to a
mineral wax and oil, and also used as a generic name of a particular series
Paraffin is the common name
the alkane hydrocarbons with the general formula CnH2n+2. Paraffin wax
refers to the solids with n=20–40.
Paraffin wax is mostly found
as a white, odorless, tasteless, waxy solid, with a typical melting point
between about 47 °C to 64 °C, and having a density of around 0.9 g/cm3. It
is insoluble in water, but soluble in ether, benzene, and certain esters.
Paraffin wax is a low
molecular weight, straight chain hydrocarbon with a low melting point(120
°F-160°F or 49°C-71°C).
Paraffin wax production is based on slack wax, a mixture
of oil and wax, which is a by-product of the lubrication oil refinery
The base waxes are hydro-treated, resulting in Fully
Refined Paraffin Waxes (FRP) with an oil content of maximum 0.5 % and Semi
Refined Paraffin Waxes (SRP) with an oil content up to 3.5 %.
Hydro-treated paraffin waxes correspond to RAL Quality Mark for Candles
and fulfil the required food-and-drug regulations.
In Chlorinated Paraffin Wax(CPW) process the paraffin Wax
is melted in a vessel provided with steam jacket. The molten wax is
charged to a glass lined chlorinator jacketed for steam heating. Dry
chlorine gas is introduced to the mass of melted wax from bottom at
regulated rate. The reaction temperature is maintained at 100oc for 18 to
20 hours. Liberated hydrochloric acid is absorbed in water in a packed
absorption column. The chlorinated product is mixed with certain
additives, filtered, cooled and sent packing in drums.
Paraffin wax was
prepared by melting about 200 g in a stainless steel container on a hot
plate at 60oC. When the wax had melted completely, the container was left
on the hot plate at 50oC prior to wax treatment on the fruits and
Commercial paraffin wax was
used as phase change material, polyethylene and a copolymer were used as
paraffin wax is a
relatively stable and seemingly innocuous substance without a dangerous
goods classification, it is quite combustible and will burn with intense
heat, giving off black acrid smoke with a high carbon monoxide content.
Paraffin is the major
source of energy for the majority of the population in South Africa and is
relied upon as the primary fuel by millions of South Africans for cooking,
heating and lighting. An estimated 685 million litres of paraffin are used
every year for domestic energy in South Africa.
Chlorinated paraffins (CPs)
are produced in, and imported into, Canada for use as plasticizers and
flame retardants as well as extreme-pressure additives in lubricating
oils. They are persistent compounds and have the potential to
bioaccumulate in aquatic organisms.
Global demand for n-paraffins
to produce linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) the detergent industry's
workhorse surfactants - continues to grow at nearly 6 percent annually,
led by Latin America, Eastern Europe and Asia. LAS is more mature in the
U.S. where the growth rate is about 1 to 2 percent.
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