- Testosterone is a steroid
hormone from the androgen group. In mammals, testosterone is primarily
secreted in the testes of males and the ovaries of females, although small
amounts are also secreted by the adrenal glands. It is the principal male
sex hormone and an anabolic steroid.
Testosterone is an anabolic
steroid, which means that not only it possesses a unique chemical structure
but it has the capacity to promote the formation of bone and muscle in the
Although it is usually
thought of as a male hormone, women's body also make testosterone, but at
much lower levels than men's. Testosterone has two different effects on the
body: anabolic effects which promote growth and muscle building, and
androgenic effects which develop the male sex organs and secondary sex
characteristics such as deepening of the voice and growth of facial hair.
The interstitial cells, which
lie between the seminiferous tubules, produce testosterone. these cells are
activated during puberty by two hormones, FSH and LH, which is called
interstitial cell stimulating hormone (ICSH).
Okadaic acid, a tumor promoter derived from a black
sponge, dose-dependently suppressed human chorionic gonadotropin
(hCG)-stimulated testosterone production in primary cultured mouse Leydig
cells. Okadaic acid at 10 nM caused a 70% reduction in testosterone
production, and this inhibition was not due to cell damage. Okadaic acid
did not affect basal testosterone production.
As predicted, females invested greater concentrations of
testosterone in their eggs when exposed to attractive repertoires than
when exposed to unattractive repertoires. This implies that song
repertoires convey important information about the reproductive value of a
given male and suggests that testosterone deposition in egg yolk may be
- One of the more famous substances which increases in response to
exercise, and is strongly suggested to stimulate or mediate muscle tissue
growth and strength is the hormone testosterone.
- We recently described a connection between androgens and ghrelin in
women affected by the polycystic ovary syndrome. To further investigate
the interaction between sex steroids and ghrelin, we investigated
circulating ghrelin levels in a group of hypogonadal men before and after
therapeutic intervention aiming at normalization low testosterone (T)
- The technology exploited now includes biotechnological
4-androstenedione (AD) production from sitosterol followed by 4 step
chemical synthesis of testosterone from AD. The direct biotechnological
production of testosterone from sitosterol in a single biotechnological
operation is a prosperous alternative for the existing technologies. It is
ecologically friendly, economically attractive, based on the use of
available materials, allows to economize labour- and energy consumes.
- testosterone is endogenous male sex hormone. In medicinal practice it
is applied in an esterified form. Testosterone influences nitrogenous and
phosphorous metabolism, expresses anabolic and androgen effect.
- Testosterone cream is one of many topical testosterone products to
help increase testosterone levels. The safe, yet extremely potent,
testosterone gel is absorbed through the skin directly into the blood
stream using ""Time Released Liposome Transdermal Delivery System""
technology to boost testosterone levels for hours longer than many
prescription drugs. It does not contain caffeine, and many testosterone
creams are available without a prescription.
Many xenobiotic and natural compounds such as testosterone
have been used and sometime misused to improve the growth of cattle and
other livestock animals. In order to control the testosterone
hormone residues in meat and to ensure the safety of Iranian consumers, a
monitoring system must be put in place to address the concerns.
- The National Institute on Aging (NIA) commends the Institute of
Medicine (IOM) for its thoughtful report evaluating the pros and cons of
conducting clinical trials of testosterone replacement in older men. The
NIA appreciates the effort and care that went into formulating the report
and its recommendations, including those regarding the design, safety and
ethics of conducting such trials.
- Testosterone production begins before birth, and influences the fetal
growth of male genitals as well as the development of the brain, muscle,
kidney, and liver. Throughout boyhood, testosterone production is low. At
puberty, testosterone levels increase dramatically, causing the genitals
to mature, facial and body hair to grow, the voice to deepen, and adult
male musculature to develop.
- Testosterone controls sperm production, sexual drive, and sexual
performance throughout a man's life. Testosterone levels diminish when men
are in their mid-forties or fifties, although some men continue to have
relatively high levels into their eighties and beyond.
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