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General

  • Testosterone is a steroid hormone from the androgen group. In mammals, testosterone is primarily secreted in the testes of males and the ovaries of females, although small amounts are also secreted by the adrenal glands. It is the principal male sex hormone and an anabolic steroid.
  • Testosterone is an anabolic steroid, which means that not only it possesses a unique chemical structure but it has the capacity to promote the formation of bone and muscle in the body.

  • Although it is usually thought of as a male hormone, women's body also make testosterone, but at much lower levels than men's. Testosterone has two different effects on the body: anabolic effects which promote growth and muscle building, and androgenic effects which develop the male sex organs and secondary sex characteristics such as deepening of the voice and growth of facial hair.

Process

 
  • The interstitial cells, which lie between the seminiferous tubules, produce testosterone. these cells are activated during puberty by two hormones, FSH and LH, which is called interstitial cell stimulating hormone (ICSH).

  • Okadaic acid, a tumor promoter derived from a black sponge, dose-dependently suppressed human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)-stimulated testosterone production in primary cultured mouse Leydig cells. Okadaic acid at 10 nM caused a 70% reduction in testosterone production, and this inhibition was not due to cell damage. Okadaic acid did not affect basal testosterone production.

  • As predicted, females invested greater concentrations of testosterone in their eggs when exposed to attractive repertoires than when exposed to unattractive repertoires. This implies  that song repertoires convey important information about the reproductive value of a given male and suggests that testosterone deposition in egg yolk may be costly.

Applications

  • One of the more famous substances which increases in response to exercise, and is strongly suggested to stimulate or mediate muscle tissue growth and strength is the hormone testosterone.
  • We recently described a connection between androgens and ghrelin in women affected by the polycystic ovary syndrome. To further investigate the interaction between sex steroids and ghrelin, we investigated circulating ghrelin levels in a group of hypogonadal men before and after therapeutic intervention aiming at normalization low testosterone (T) concentrations.
  • The technology exploited now includes biotechnological 4-androstenedione (AD) production from sitosterol followed by 4 step chemical synthesis of testosterone from AD. The direct biotechnological production of testosterone from sitosterol in a single biotechnological operation is a prosperous alternative for the existing technologies. It is ecologically friendly, economically attractive, based on the use of available materials, allows to economize labour- and energy consumes.
  • testosterone is endogenous male sex hormone. In medicinal practice it is applied in an esterified form. Testosterone influences nitrogenous and phosphorous metabolism, expresses anabolic and androgen effect.

Market

  • Testosterone cream is one of many topical testosterone products to help increase testosterone levels. The safe, yet extremely potent, testosterone gel is absorbed through the skin directly into the blood stream using ""Time Released Liposome Transdermal Delivery System"" technology to boost testosterone levels for hours longer than many prescription drugs. It does not contain caffeine, and many testosterone creams are available without a prescription.
  • Many xenobiotic and natural compounds such as testosterone have been used and sometime misused to improve the growth of cattle and other livestock animals. In order to control the testosterone  hormone residues in meat and to ensure the safety of Iranian consumers, a monitoring system must be put in place to address the concerns.

Report

  • The National Institute on Aging (NIA) commends the Institute of Medicine (IOM) for its thoughtful report evaluating the pros and cons of conducting clinical trials of testosterone replacement in older men. The NIA appreciates the effort and care that went into formulating the report and its recommendations, including those regarding the design, safety and ethics of conducting such trials.
  • Testosterone production begins before birth, and influences the fetal growth of male genitals as well as the development of the brain, muscle, kidney, and liver. Throughout boyhood, testosterone production is low. At puberty, testosterone levels increase dramatically, causing the genitals to mature, facial and body hair to grow, the voice to deepen, and adult male musculature to develop.
  • Testosterone controls sperm production, sexual drive, and sexual performance throughout a man's life. Testosterone levels diminish when men are in their mid-forties or fifties, although some men continue to have relatively high levels into their eighties and beyond.
     

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