Acetylene

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Information @ a Glance

 

General

  • Acetylene (IUPAC name: ethyne) , C2H2, is a hydrocarbon belonging to the group of alkynes.
  • It is considered to be the simplest of all alkynes as it consists of two hydrogen atoms and two carbon atoms.
  • Acetylene is an unsaturated organic compound because its two carbon atoms are triply bonded.
  • The carbon-carbon triple bond leaves the carbon atoms with two sp hybrid orbitals for sigma bonding, placing all four atoms in the same straight line, with CCH bond angles of 180°.
  • The principal raw materials for acetylene manufacture are calcium carbonate (limestone) and coal.
  • Acetylene can also be manufactured by the partial combustion of methane with oxygen, or by the cracking of hydrocarbons.

Application

  • Air-acetylene flames are also used for soldering and other plumbing applications where the very high temperature of the oxy-acetylene flame is not required.
  • Acetylene is used as the fuel gas in atomic absorption analyzers.
  • Acetylene is used in automatic lubrication of glass bottle molds.
  • Acetylene’s use in welding and cutting applications as well as for heat treatment and coating, makes it a very useful gas across a wide range of industries.
  • Acetylene Black is used in the manufacture of Dry Cells - mainly to improve the depolarizing properties of manganese dioxide.

Market

  • About 85 percent of Chinese enterprises use acetylene, and the total annual demand for acetylene has reached 100 million cylinders or so all over the country; the average annual consumption for acetylene has reached 350 thousand cylinders in big cities, 100 thousand cylinders in medium-sized cities and 30 thousand cylinders or so in county-level cities.
  • 1,4-Butanediol, which accounts for nearly 90 percent of the acetylenic chemicals demand for acetylene, is growing at more than 5 percent annually, fueled by strong demand for downstream intermediates.
  • With the new catalyst, nearly all of the acetylene produced during the ethylene manufacturing process can now be converted to ethylene, increasing product yields.

Report

  • The acetylene yield is the percent of the carbon in the methane feedstock that ends up in acetylene and the hydrogen yield is the percent of the hydrogen in the methane feedstock that ends up as elemental hydrogen.
  • The full cutting torch systems assessment report can be found on the SAVER Web site along with other TAMU reports dealing with the cutting torch assessment project.
  • BASF uses large amounts of acetylene to produce butanediol. With an annual capacity at Geismar of 280 million pounds, BASF is the largest merchant supplier of this product in the NAFTA region.

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