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Information @ a Glance

General

  • Aciclovir (INN)or acyclovir (USAN, former BAN), chemical name acycloguanosine, is a guanine analogue antiviral drug.
  • Aciclovir was seen as the start of a new era in antiviral therapy.
  • Aciclovir differs from previous nucleoside analogues in that it contains only a partial nucleoside structure.
  • Acyclovir is poorly water soluble and has poor oral bioavailability.
  • Acyclovir is available with a prescription under the brand name Zovirax.
  • Acyclovir is prescribed as a cream or ointment (topical use), oral tablets, or intravenous liquid.

Process

  • Acyclovir is highly selective due to its affinity for the enzyme thymidine kinase (TK) encoded by HSV and VZV. This viral enzyme converts acyclovir into acyclovir monophosphate, a nucleotide analogue.
  • The comparability of systemic aciclovir exposure at steady state in immunocompromised patients has been evaluated.
  • Two common hydrolytic enzymes were used as the catalysts for the transesterification of acyclovir.
  • The antiviral action of acyclovir involves its enzymatic conversion into the triphosphate of acycloguanosine 9-[(2-hydroxyethoxy)methyl]guanine}.
  • Acyclovir {9-[(2-hydroxyethoxy)methyl]guanine} is a synthetic purine nucleoside analog derived from guanine.

Application

  • Acylovir is indicated for the treatment of HSV and VZV infections.
  • Taking acyclovir with food may decrease stomach upset.
  • Acyclovir is used to treat infections caused by herpes viruses.
  • Acyclovir is a purine nucleoside analogue with effects against human herpesvirus infections.
  • Antiviral nucleoside acyclovir acts as a potential drug candidate for improving antiviral efficacy against herpetic epithelial and stromal keratitis.
  • The use of acyclovir (ACV) has become an established part of clinical practice.

Technology

  • HPLC technique is used for the determination of guanine nucleoside derivative acyclovir in serum, saliva and urine.
  • Inderting Acyclovir twice a day by melt extrusion technique helps to improve patient complience using hydroxypropylcellulose as thermoplastic polymer.
  • Suppression and reactivation of viral replication were evaluated by functional and molecular techniques.
  • The effect of solvent polarity on the keto–enol tautomerism of N- and O-acetylated acyclovir derivatives has been studied through different spectroscopic technique.

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