- Adipic acid (IUPAC
systematic name: hexanedioic acid) is a dicarboxylic acid. It is a white
crystalline powder. Due to its long aliphatic chain, it is not very
soluble in water.
- Adipic Acid is
a C6 straight-chain dicarboxylic acid; slightly soluble in water and
soluble in alcohol and acetone. Almost all of the commercial adipic acid
is produced from cyclohexane through two sequent oxidation processes.
- Adipic acid is
a chemical intermediate used in the production of nylon 66 resin and
nylon 66 fibre or in polyol and polyurethane production.
- Almost all of the
commercial adipic acid is produced from cyclohexane through two sequent
- The first oxidation
is the reacting of cyclohexane with oxygen in the presents of cobalt or
manganese catalysts at a temperature of 150 - 160 C, which produce
cyclohexanol and cyclohexanone. Then, the intermediates are further
reacted with nitric acid and air with a catalyst (copper or vanadium) or
without nitric acid.
- Most adipic acids
react with 1,6-hexane diamine to form polyamide, more known by its
product name "Nylon 6,6". Nylon 6,6 is mainly used to produce fibre and
- Adipic acid is used
in manufacturing plasticizers and lubricants components. It is used in
making polyester polyols for polyurethane systems. Food grade adipic
acid is used as gelling aid, acidulant, leavening and buffering agent.
- Adipic acid
derivatives , acyl halides, anhydrides, esters, amides and nitriles, are
used in making target products such as flavoring agents, internal
plasticizers, pesticides, dyes, textile treatment agents, fungicides,
- Nylon 6,6 fiber is
used in apparel, especially ladies' hosiery, sleepwear, and underwear,
carpets, and home furnishings. Other nylon 6,6 fiber uses include tire
cord, fishing line, brush bristles, and in tough fabrics for parachutes,
backpacks, luggage, and business cases.
- The hexanedioic acid
(HC) consumption structure varies by regions. Thus, in the Asia-Pacific
region 85% of HC is used for polyamide production, while its share in
the production of polyurethanes is lower, since polyurethane production
in this region more often involves simple polyesters which do not
require adipic acid for their synthesis.
- Nevertheless, demand
for nylon applied in the manufacture of plastics is growing. The Asian
region is a vivid manifestation of this tendency. That, in turn, leads
to the increase in the demand for AC in the region.
- Russia fails to have
its own production of adipic acid, though the prerequisites for its
origination are quite favourable, since the vital feedstock is available
and major consumers of end-products are present.
- Nitrous oxide (N2O)
is generated as a by-product during the production of adipic acid and
nitric acid. The main use for adipic acid is as a component of
nylon-6/6; thus production trends are closely correlated with nylon
- Worldwide, there are
very few adipic acid plants. The U.S. is a major producer with three
companies in four locations accounting for approximately forty percent
of world production.
- Other producing
countries include Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, Italy, Japan,
Korea, Singapore, Ukraine, and United Kingdom.
- Most of these
countries have only one adipic acid plant. Nitric acid is used primarily
to make synthetic commercial fertiliser. Worldwide, the number of nitric
acid plants is somewhat uncertain.
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